Association between glycemic index and glycemic load and the risk of incident coronary heart disease among whites and African Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study
Several studies have examined the association between high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) diets and the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, most of these studies were conducted primarily on white populations. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether high GI and GL diets are associated with increased risk for developing CHD in whites and African Americans, non-diabetics and diabetics, and within stratifications of body mass index (BMI) and hypertension (HTN). Baseline and 17-year follow-up data from ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study was used. The study population (13,051) consisted of 74% whites, 26% African Americans, 89% non-diabetics, 11% diabetics, 43% male, 57% female aged 44 to 66 years at baseline. Data from the ARIC food frequency questionnaire at baseline were analyzed to provide GI and GL indices for each subject. Increases of 25 and 30 units for GI and GL respectively were used to describe relationships on incident CHD risk. Adjusted hazard ratios for propensity score with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess associations. During 17 years of follow-up (1987 to 2004), 1,683 cases of CHD was recorded. Glycemic index was associated with 2.12 fold (95% CI: 1.05, 4.30) increased incident CHD risk for all African Americans and GL was associated with 1.14 fold (95% CI: 1.04, 1.25) increased CHD risk for all whites. In addition, GL was also an important CHD risk factor for white non-diabetics (HR=1.59; 95% CI: 1.33, 1.90). Furthermore, within stratum of BMI 23.0 to 29.9 in non-diabetics, GI was associated with an increased hazard ratio of 11.99 (95% CI: 2.31, 62.18) for CHD in African Americans, and GL was associated with 1.23 fold (1.08, 1.39) increased CHD risk in whites. Body mass index modified the effect of GI and GL on CHD risk in all whites and white non-diabetics. For HTN, both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure modified the effect on GI and GL on CHD risk in all whites and African Americans, white and African American non-diabetics, and white diabetics. Further studies should examine other factors that could influence the effects of GI and GL on CHD risk, including dietary factors, physical activity, and diet-gene interactions.
Hardy, Dale Sharon, "Association between glycemic index and glycemic load and the risk of incident coronary heart disease among whites and African Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study" (2008). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3297453.