Racial/ethnic differences in factors influencing screening and treatment among prostate cancer patients
Background. Racial/ethnic differences have been found in various aspects of cancer care. But a limited number of studies have examined the racial/ethnic differences in predictors of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in a group of prostate cancer patients and have attempted to identify the racial/ethnic differences in treatment discussions, treatment choice and treatment received for organ-confined localized prostate cancer (PCa) among three major racial/ethnic groups of the USA. This study was conducted to redress this lack of information. Methods. This study was conducted on a group of 935 prostate cancer patients representing all three major race/ethnic groups (Whites, African Americans and Hispanics) who were treated at various medical institutes of the Texas Medical Center, Houston between 1996 and 2004 to identify the racial/ethnic differences in predictors of PSA screening. A subset of 640 patients who had organ-confined localized prostate cancer was selected to examine the racial/ethnic differences in treatment discussions, treatment choice and treatment received for their localized prostate cancer. They were interviewed by trained research interviewers of MD Anderson Cancer Center using a validated structured questionnaire. Results. The results showed that African American (54.4%) and Hispanic patients (42.3%) were significantly less likely (p=0.004 and p<.001, respectively) than White patients (63.2%) to report having had PSA screening before their prostate-cancer diagnosis. Among Whites, only education and annual check-ups predicted the use of PSA screening, whereas in African Americans two more additional factors, marital status and bode-mass index (BMI), significantly predicted PSA screening. Among Hispanics, like two other groups, education and annual check-ups also appeared as a significant predictor of PSA screening. Results from multivariable logistic regression showed that African American patients were 15% less likely (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.61-1.17, p=0.32) and Hispanics patients were 40% less likely (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.41-0.87, p=0.008) to undergo PSA screening than Whites after adjusting for education and age at diagnosis for African Americans, and for education, annual check-ups and age at diagnosis for Hispanics. This study revealed that health professionals were less likely to discuss surgery (79.9% vs. 93.2%) and watchful waiting (27.9% vs. 43.9%) with Hispanics compared to Whites. African Americans were more likely to choose (35.1% vs. 27.7%) and receive radiation therapy (38.3% vs.31.4%) than Whites. A comparison of concordance between treatment choice and treatment received showed that the highest concordance was found for watchful waiting and radiation therapy among African Americans (100% and 85.9%, respectively) whereas the highest concordance (96.9%) was found for surgery among Hispanics. Conclusions. In this multiethnic study, the rates of PSA screening and its potential predictors varied by racial/ethnic groups. Substantial racial/ethnic variations were also found in treatment discussion, but the differences were not evident for treatment choice and treatment received. Health-education programs and culturally appropriate educational outreach efforts, especially targeted for high-risk groups, are needed to reduce these disparities. In the current climate of uncertainty about the benefits of PSA screening, or the benefit of one treatment over others, men should have access to information and services regardless of race/ethnicity so that they can make informed decisions. Further in-depth studies are needed in other settings to confirm these findings with the goal of developing an intervention to address these concerns.
Hosain, G.M. Monawar, "Racial/ethnic differences in factors influencing screening and treatment among prostate cancer patients" (2008). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3315543.