Diabetes genes and risk of prostate cancer in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study
Prostate cancer (PrCa) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, yet the etiology remains uncertain. Meta-analyses show that PrCa risk is reduced by 16% in men with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the mechanism is unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses have found single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that consistently predict T2D risk. We evaluated associations of incident PrCa with 14 T2D SNPs in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. From 1987-2000, there were 397 incident PrCa cases ascertained from state or local cancer registries among 6,642 men (1,560 blacks and 5,082 whites) aged 45-64 years at baseline. Genotypes were determined by TaqMan assay. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between PrCa and increasing number of T2D risk-raising alleles for individual SNPs and for genetic risk scores (GRS) comprised of the number of T2D risk-raising alleles across SNPs. Two-way gene-gene interactions were evaluated with likelihood ratio tests. Using additive genetic models, the T2D risk-raising allele was associated with significantly reduced risk of PrCa for IGF2BP2 rs4402960 (hazard ratio [HR]=0.79; P=0.07 among blacks only), SLC2A2 rs5400 (race-adjusted HR=0.85; P=0.05) and UCP2 rs660339 (race-adjusted HR=0.84; P=0.02), but significantly increased risk of PrCa for CAPN10 rs3792267 (race-adjusted HR=1.20; P=0.05). No other SNPs were associated with PrCa using an additive genetic model. However, at least one copy of the T2D risk-raising allele for TCF7L2 rs7903146 was associated with reduced PrCa risk using a dominant genetic model (race-adjusted HR=0.79; P=0.03). These results imply that the T2D-PrCa association may be partly due to shared genetic variation, but these results should be verified since multiple tests were performed. When the combined, additive effects of these SNPs were tested using a GRS, there was nearly a 10% reduction in risk of PrCa per T2D risk-raising allele (race-adjusted HR=0.92; P=0.02). SNPs in IGF2BP2, KCNJ11 and SLC2A2 were also involved in multiple synergistic gene-gene interactions on a multiplicative scale. In conclusion, it appears that the T2D-PrCa association may be due, in part, to common genetic variation. Further knowledge of T2D gene-PrCa mechanisms may improve understanding of PrCa etiology and may inform PrCa prevention and treatment.
Meyer, Tamra Elaine, "Diabetes genes and risk of prostate cancer in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study" (2008). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3330393.