Translation and cultural adaptation of the Stigma-Devaluation scale for use among family caregivers of mentally ill relatives in Jordan

Heyam F Dalky, The University of Texas School of Nursing at Houston


Background/significance. Mental illness stigma is a matter of great concern to family caregivers. Few research studies have been conducted in the Arab World on family caregivers' perception of stigma associated with caring for a mentally ill relative. Review of the literature on measurement of the concept of stigma related to caring for a mentally ill relative yielded no instrument appropriate for use in a Jordanian sample. Reliable and valid instruments to measure stigma perception among family caregivers are needed for research and practice, particularly in Arabic speaking populations. Purpose. The purposes of this study were: (1) translate the Stigma-Devaluation scale (SDS) into Arabic, modifying it to accurately reflect the cultural parameters specific to Jordan, and (2) test the reliability, the content and construct validity of the Arabic version of the SDS for use among a sample of family members of mentally ill relatives in Jordan. Design. Methodologic, cross-sectional. Methods. The SDS was translated into Arabic language, modified and culturally adapted to the Jordanian culture by a translation model which incorporates a cultural adaptation process. The Arabic SDS was evaluated in a sample of 164 family caregivers in the outpatient mental health clinic in Irbid-Jordan. Cronbach's alpha estimation of internal consistency was used to assess the reliability of the SDS. Construct validity was determined by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Measurements of content validity and reading level of the Arabic SDS were included. Findings. Content Validity Index was determined to be 1.0. Reading level of the Arabic SDS was considered at a 6th grade or lower Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the modified Arabic SDS total scale was .87. Initial results of CFA did not fully support the proposed factor structures of the SDS or its subscales. After modifications, the indices indicated that the modified model of each subscale had satisfactory fit. Conclusion. This study provided psychometric evidence that the modified Arabic SDS translated and culturally adapted instrument, is valid and conceptually consistent with the content of the original English SDS in measuring stigma perception among families of mentally ill relatives in Jordan.

Subject Area

Mental health

Recommended Citation

Dalky, Heyam F, "Translation and cultural adaptation of the Stigma-Devaluation scale for use among family caregivers of mentally ill relatives in Jordan" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3353003.