The role of AKT-mediated phosphorylation in suppression of MAD1 and the development of new approach in protein complex detection
MAX dimerization protein 1 (MAD1) is a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors that recruits transcription repressor such as HDAC to suppress target genes transcription. It antagonizes to MYC because the promoter binding sites for MYC are usually also serve as the binding sites for MAD1 so they compete for it. However, the mechanism of the switch between MYC and MAD1 in turning on and off of genes' transcription is obscure. In this study, we demonstrated that AKT-mediated MAD1 phosphorylation inhibits MAD1 transcription repression function. The association between MAD1 and its target genes' promoter is reduced after been phosphorylated by AKT; therefore, consequently, allows MYC to occupy the binding site and activates transcription. Mutation of such phosphorylation site abrogates the inhibition from AKT. In addition, functional assays demonstrated that AKT suppressed MAD1-mediated transcription repression of its target genes hTERT and ODC. Cell cycle and cell growth were also been released from inhibition by MAD1 in the presents of AKT. Taken together, our study suggests that MAD1 is a novel substrate of AKT and AKT-mediated MAD1 phosphorylation inhibits MAD1function; therefore, activates MAD1 target genes expression. Furthermore, analysis of protein-protein interaction is indispensable for current molecular biology research, but multiplex protein dynamics in cells is too complicated to be analyzed by using existing biochemical methods. To overcome the disadvantage, we have developed a single molecule level detection system with nanofluidic chip. Single molecule was analyzed based on their fluorescent profile and their profiles were plotted into 2 dimensional time co-incident photon burst diagram (2DTP). From this 2DTP, protein complexes were characterized. These results demonstrate that the nanochannel protein detection system is a promising tool for future molecular biology.
Molecular biology|Biomedical engineering|Medicine
Chou, Chao-Kai, "The role of AKT-mediated phosphorylation in suppression of MAD1 and the development of new approach in protein complex detection" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3383830.