An examination of spirituality, self efficacy, and smoking cessation among adults in Houston, Texas
Over the past decade there has been a growing interest in the association between spirituality and health outcomes. Little is known about the role of spirituality among adult smokers who are motivated to stop smoking. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the relations among immutable individual differences, spirituality, and self efficacy among adults motivated to stop smoking. The first paper of this dissertation systematically reviewed literature to measure the concordance between spirituality and smoking status among adults in the United States. The second paper of this dissertation explored the association between spirituality and smoking cessation. We hypothesized that higher levels of spirituality were positively associated with smoking cessation. The third paper of this dissertation examined the association between perceived self efficacy and spirituality. We hypothesized that both high levels of self efficacy and spirituality were positively associated with smoking cessation. A total of 152 citations were identified based on the preliminary search of databases and reference lists. After a preliminary title- and abstract-based review, 17 full text articles were retrieved for further assessment. Of these, eight met the criteria for inclusion. Results of the systematic review suggest that there is inconsistent evidence to support or refute an association between spirituality and smoking status among adults. Smokers (N = 200) at least 18 years of age enrolled in a minimal contact smoking cessation intervention in Houston, Texas completed questionnaires. To examine our hypotheses we conducted cross-sectional analyses of responses to questions included in selected baseline questions and the final in-person visit three weeks post-quit day. Results of the logistic regression analyses indicated that individuals with higher levels of spirituality and self efficacy were significantly more likely to abstain from smoking. The positive association is also evident when controlling for employment, income, race, education, and nicotine dependence. The interaction between self efficacy and spirituality was not statistically significant in predicting smoking abstinence. Recommendations for future research and implications for smoking cessation interventions are discussed. Further research in this area would benefit from using standard measures of abstinence, recruiting larger and more diverse populations, and using longitudinal study designs.
German, Valandra, "An examination of spirituality, self efficacy, and smoking cessation among adults in Houston, Texas" (2010). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3398917.