The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the regulation of adaptive immunity
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) selectively express TLR7 which allows them to respond to RNA viruses and TLR9 which allows them to respond to DNA viruses and CpG oligonucleotides. Upon exposure to virus pDCs produce vast amounts of type I interferon (IFN) directly inhibiting viral replication and contributing to the activation of other immune cells. The ability of pDCs to promote B and T cell differentiation through type I IFN has been well documented although the role of additional factors including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family members has not been thoroughly addressed. Here the expression of selected TNF family members in pDCs was examined and the role of TNF receptor-ligand interactions in the regulation of B and T lymphocyte growth and differentiation by pDCs was investigated. Upon stimulation with CpG-B, pDCs exhibit strong and stable expression of CD70, a TNF family ligand that binds to its receptor CD27 on memory B cells and promotes plasma cell differentiation and Ig secretion. Using an in vitro pDC/B cell co-culture system, it was determined that CpG-B-stimulated pDCs induce the proliferation of CD40L-activated human peripheral B cells and Ig secretion. This occurs independently of IFN and residual CpG, and requires physical contact between pDCs and B cells. CpG-stimulated pDCs induce the proliferation of both naive and memory B cells although Ig secretion is restricted to the memory subset. Blocking the interaction of CD70 with CD27 using an antagonist anti-CD70 antibody reduces the induction of B cell proliferation and IgG secretion by CpG-B-stimulated pDCs. Published studies have also indicated an important role for CD70 in promoting the expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the development of effector function. CpG-B-stimulated pDCs induce naïve CD4+ T cell proliferation and production of multiple cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Blocking the function of CD70 with an antagonist anti-CD70 antibody significantly reduced the induction of naïve CD4+ T cell proliferation by CpG-B-stimulated pDCs and the production of IL-4 and IL-13. Collectively these data indicate an important role for CD70 in the regulation of B and T lymphocyte growth and differentiation by pDCs.
Shaw, Joanne Louise, "The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the regulation of adaptive immunity" (2009). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3401842.