Enlarged tracheoesophageal puncture: A systematic review and retrospective analysis

Katherine A Hutcheson, The University of Texas School of Public Health


Background. An enlarged tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) results in aspiration around the voice prosthesis (VP) and may lead to pneumonia. The aims of this research were: (1) to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on enlarged TEP; (2) to analyze preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative risk factors for enlarged TEP; and (3) to evaluate control of leakage around the VP using conservative treatments and adverse events in patients with enlarged TEP.^ Methods. A systematic review was conducted (1978-2008). A summary risk estimate was calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis model. A retrospective cohort study was completed. Patients who underwent total laryngectomy and TEP at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) were included. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to assess risk factors for enlargement. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were calculated to evaluate outcomes and adverse events. Results: Twenty-seven manuscripts were included in the systematic review. The summary risk estimate of enlarged TEP/leakage around the VP was 7.2% (95% CI: 4.8%-9.6%). Temporary VP removal and TEP-site injections were the most commonly reported treatments. Neither prosthetic diameter (p=0.076) nor timing of TEP (p=0.297) significantly increased risk of enlargement per stratified analyses of published outcomes. The cumulative incidence of enlarged TEP was 18.6% (36/194, 95% CI: 13.0%-24.1%) in the MDACC cohort. Enlarged TEP occurred exclusively in irradiated patients. Adjusting for length of follow-up and timing of TEP, advanced nodal disease (ORadjusted: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.0-19.1), stricture (ORadjusted : 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-8.6), and locoregional recurrence/distant metastasis after laryngectomy (ORadjusted: 6.2, 95% CI: 2.3-16.4) increased risk of enlarged TEP. At last follow-up, conservative methods controlled leakage around the VP in 81% (29/36) of patients. Unresolved leakage was associated with recurrent cancer (p=0.081) and TEP-site irregularity (p=0.003). Relative to those without enlargement, enlarged TEP patients had significantly higher risk of pneumonia (RR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.9-6.2).^ Conclusions. These data establish that enlarged TEP poses serious health risks, and provide insight into medical and oncologic factors that may contribute to development of this complication. In addition, this research supports the use of conservative treatments to address leakage after enlarged TEP in lieu of complete TEP closure.^

Subject Area

Health Sciences, Speech Pathology|Health Sciences, Epidemiology

Recommended Citation

Hutcheson, Katherine A, "Enlarged tracheoesophageal puncture: A systematic review and retrospective analysis" (2010). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3413258.