Burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in Harris County, Texas (2003–2010) and the implication for enhanced public health surveillance of isolates
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) causes significant health burden in the US, is responsible for the majority of bacterial meningitis, and causes more deaths than any other vaccine preventable bacterial disease in the US. The estimated National IPD rate is 14.3 cases per 100,000 population with a case-fatality rate of 1.5 cases per 100,000 population. Although cases of IPD are routinely reported to the local health department in Harris County Texas, the incidence (IR) and case-fatality (CFR) rates have not been reported. Additionally, it is important to know which serotypes of S. pneumoniae are circulating in Harris County Texas and to determine if ‘replacement disease’ is occurring. This study reported incidence and case-fatality rates from 2003 to 2009, and described the trends in IPD, including the IPD serotypes circulating in Harris County Texas during the study period, particularly in 2008 and 2010. Annual incidence rates were calculated and reported for 2003 to 2009, using complete surveillance-year data. Geographic information system (GIS) software was used to create a series of maps of the data reported during the study period. Cluster and outlier analysis and hot spot analysis were conducted using both case counts by census tract and disease rate by census tract. IPD age- and race-adjusted IR for Harris County Texas and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.40 (95% CI 1.0, 1.8), 1.71 (95% CI 1.24, 2.17), 3.13 (95% CI 2.48, 3.78), 3.08 (95% CI 2.43, 3.74), 5.61 (95% CI 4.79, 6.43), 8.11 (95% CI 7.11, 9.1), and 7.65 (95% CI 6.69, 8.61) for the years 2003 to 2009, respectively (rates were age- and race-adjusted to each year's midyear US population estimates). A Poisson regression model demonstrated a statistically significant increasing trend of about 32 percent per year in the IPD rates over the course of the study period. IPD age- and race-adjusted case-fatality rates (CFR) for Harris County Texas were also calculated and reported. A Poisson regression model demonstrated a statistically significant increasing trend of about 26 percent per year in the IPD case-fatality rates from 2003 through 2009. A logistic regression model associated the risk of dying from IPD to alcohol abuse (OR 4.69, 95% CI 2.57, 8.56) and to meningitis (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.46, 4.03). The prevalence of non-vaccine serotypes (NVT) among IPD cases with serotyped isolates was 98.2 percent. In 2008, the year with the sample more geographically representative of all areas of Harris County Texas, the prevalence was 96 percent. Given these findings, it is reasonable to conclude that ‘replacement disease’ is occurring in Harris County Texas, meaning that, the majority of IPD is caused by serotypes not included in the PCV7 vaccine. Also in conclusion, IPD rates increased during the study period in Harris County Texas.
Martinez, Diana, "Burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in Harris County, Texas (2003–2010) and the implication for enhanced public health surveillance of isolates" (2011). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3464818.