Anal warts and their predictors among HIV-infected women
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and is also strongly associated with anal cancer. While different factors such as CD4+ cell count, HIV RNA viral load, smoking status, and cytological screening results have been identified as risk factors for the infection of HPV high-risk types and associated cancers, much less is known about the association between those risk factors and the infection of HPV low-risk types and anogential warts. In this dissertation, a public dataset (release P09) obtained from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was used to examine the effects of those risk factors on the size of the largest anal warts in HIV-infected women in the United States. Linear mixed modeling was used to address this research question. The prevalence of anal warts at baseline for WIHS participants was higher than other populations. Incidence of anal warts in HIV-infected women was significantly higher than that of HIV-uninfected women [4.15 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI: 3.83–4.77) vs. 1.30 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI: 1.00–1.58), respectively]. There appeared to be an inverse association between the size of the largest anal wart and CD4+ cell count at baseline visit, however it was not statistically significant. There was no association between size of the largest anal wart and CD4+ cell count or HIV RNA viral load over time among HIV-infected women. There was also no association between the size of the largest anal wart and current smoking over time in HIV-infected women, even though smokers had larger warts at baseline than non-smokers. Finally, even though a woman with Pap smear results of ASCUS/LGSIL was found to have an anal wart larger than a woman with normal cervical Pap smear results the relationship between the size of the largest anal wart with cervical Pap smear results over time remains unclear. Although the associations between these risk factors and the size of the largest anal wart over time in HIV-infected women could not be firmly established, this dissertation poses several questions concerning anal wart development for further exploration: (1) the role of immune function (i.e., CD4+ cell count), (2) the role of smoking status and the interaction between smoking status with other risk factors (e.g., CD4+ cell count or HIV RNA viral load), (3) the molecular mechanism of smoking on anal warts over time, (4) the potential for development of a screening program using anal Pap smear in HIV-infected women, and (5) how cost-effective and efficacious would an anal Pap smear screening program be in this high-risk population.
Luu, Hung Nguyen, "Anal warts and their predictors among HIV-infected women" (2011). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3478219.