Epidemiology of Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in children in Vietnam
Acute Lung Injury (ALI) and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are life- threatening disorders that can result from many severe conditions and diseases. Since the American European Consensus Conference established the internationally accepted definition of ALI and ARDS, the epidemiology of pediatric ALI/ARDS has been described in some developed countries. In the developing world, however, there are very few data available regarding the burden, etiologies, management, outcome, and factors associated with outcomes of ALI/ARDS in children. Therefore, we conducted this observational, clinical study to estimate the prevalence and case mortality rate of ALI/ARDS among a cohort of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the National Hospital of Pediatrics in Hanoi, the largest children's hospital in Vietnam. Etiologies and predisposing factors, and management strategies for pediatric ALI/ARDS were described. In addition, we determined the prevalence of HIV infection among children with ALI/ARDS in Vietnam. We also identified the causes of mortality and predictors of mortality and prolonged mechanical ventilation of children with ALI/ARDS. A total of 1,051 patients consecutively admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit from January 2011 to January 2012 were screened daily for development of ALI/ARDS using the American-European Consensus Conference Guidelines. All identified patients with ALI/ARDS were followed until hospital discharge or death in the hospital. Patients' demographic and clinical data were collected. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to identify independent predictors of mortality and other adverse outcome of ALI/ARDS. Prevalence of ALI and ARDS was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 7.8% to 11.4%) and 8.8% (95% confidence interval, 7.0% to 10.5%) of total PICU admissions, respectively. Infectious pneumonia and sepsis were the most common causes of ALI/ARDS accounting for 60.4% and 26.7% of cases, respectively. Prevalence of HIV infection among children with ALI/ARDS was 3.0%. The case fatality rate of ALI/ARDS was 63.4% (95% confidence interval, 53.8% to 72.9%). Multiple organ failure and refractory hypoxemia were the main causes of death. Independent predictors of mortality and prolonged mechanical ventilation were male gender, duration of intensive care stay prior to ALI/ARDS diagnosis, level of oxygenation defect measured by PaO2/FiO2 ratio at ALI/ARDS diagnosis, presence of non-pulmonary organ dysfunction at day one and day three after ALI/ARDS diagnosis, and presence of hospital acquired infection. The results of this study demonstrated that ALI/ARDS was a common and severe condition in children in Vietnam. The level of both pulmonary and non-pulmonary organ damage influenced survival of patients with ALI/ARDS. Strategies for preventing ALI/ARDS and for clinical management of the disease are necessary to reduce the associated risks.
Phan, Phuc Huu, "Epidemiology of Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in children in Vietnam" (2012). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3540410.