Health outcomes, quality improvement and cost-effectiveness of the Community Diabetes Education (CoDE) program: Results of a randomized controlled trial
The objectives of this dissertation were to evaluate health outcomes, quality improvement measures, and the long-term cost-effectiveness and impact on diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular complications of a community health worker-led culturally tailored diabetes education and management intervention provided to uninsured Mexican Americans in an urban faith-based clinic. A prospective, randomized controlled repeated measures design was employed to compare the intervention effects between: (1) an intervention group (n=90) that participated in the Community Diabetes Education (CoDE) program along with usual medical care; and (2) a wait-listed comparison group (n=90) that received only usual medical care. Changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and secondary outcomes (lipid status, blood pressure and body mass index) were assessed using linear mixed-models and an intention-to-treat approach. The CoDE group experienced greater reduction in HbA1c (-1.6%, p<.001) than the control group (-.9%, p<.001) over the 12 month study period. After adjusting for group-by-time interaction, antidiabetic medication use at baseline, changes made to the antidiabetic regime over the study period, duration of diabetes and baseline HbA1c, a statistically significant intervention effect on HbA1c (-.7%, p=.02) was observed for CoDE participants. Process and outcome quality measures were evaluated using multiple mixed-effects logistic regression models. Assessment of quality indicators revealed that the CoDE intervention group was significantly more likely to have received a dilated retinal examination than the control group, and 53% achieved a HbA1c below 7% compared with 38% of control group subjects. Long-term cost-effectiveness and impact on diabetes-related health outcomes were estimated through simulation modeling using the rigorously validated Archimedes Model. Over a 20 year time horizon, CoDE participants were forecasted to have less proliferative diabetic retinopathy, fewer foot ulcers, and reduced numbers of foot amputations than control group subjects who received usual medical care. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $355 per quality-adjusted life-year gained was estimated for CoDE intervention participants over the same time period. The results from the three areas of program evaluation: impact on short-term health outcomes, quantification of improvement in quality of diabetes care, and projection of long-term cost-effectiveness and impact on diabetes-related health outcomes provide evidence that a community health worker can be a valuable resource to reduce diabetes disparities for uninsured Mexican Americans. This evidence supports formal integration of community health workers as members of the diabetes care team.
Prezio, Elizabeth Anne, "Health outcomes, quality improvement and cost-effectiveness of the Community Diabetes Education (CoDE) program: Results of a randomized controlled trial" (2013). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3564208.