Breast cancer risk factors among Mexican-American women
Introduction: The average age of onset of breast cancer among Hispanic women is 50 years, more than a decade earlier than non-Hispanic white women. Age at diagnosis is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer; younger age at onset is more likely to be associated with advanced disease, poorer prognosis, hormone receptor negative breast tumors, and a greater likelihood of hereditary breast cancer. Studies of breast cancer risk factors including reproductive risk factors, family history of breast cancer, and breast cancer subtype have been conducted predominately in non-Hispanic whites. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with the presence of clinically, biologically, and epidemiologically distinct subtypes that also differ with respect to their risk factors. The associations between reproductive risk factors and family history of breast cancer have been well documented in the literature. However, only a few studies have assessed these associations with breast cancer subtype in Hispanic populations. Methods: To assess the associations between reproductive risk factors and family history of breast cancer we conducted three separate studies. First, we conducted a case-control study of 172 Mexican-American breast cancer cases and 344 age matched controls residing in Harris County, TX to assess reproductive and other risk factors. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess differences in cases and controls adjusted for age at diagnosis and birthplace and then we conducted a multinomial logistic regression analysis to compare reproductive risk factors among the breast tumor subtypes. In a second study, we identified 139 breast cancer patients with a first- or second-degree family history of breast cancer and 298 without a family history from the ELLA Bi-National Breast Cancer Study. In this analysis, we also computed a multinomial logistic regression to evaluate associations between family history of breast cancer and breast cancer subtypes, and logistic regression to estimate associations between breast cancer screening practices with family history of breast cancer. In the final study, we employed a cross-sectional study design in 7279 Mexican-American women in the Mano a Mano Cohort Study. We evaluated associations with family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk factors including body mass index (BMI), lifestyle factors, migration history, and adherence to American Cancer Society (ACS) guidelines. Results: In the results of our first analyses, reproductive risk factors differed in the magnitude and direction of associations when stratified by age and birthplace among cases and controls. In our second study, family history of breast cancer, and having at least one relative diagnosed at an early age (<50 >years) was associated with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Mammography prior to receiving a breast cancer diagnosis was associated with family history of breast cancer. In our third study that assessed lifestyle factors, migration history and family history of breast cancer; we found that women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer were more overweight or obese compared with their counterparts without a family history. There was no indication that having a family history contributed to women practicing healthier lifestyle behaviors and/or adhering to the ACS guidelines for cancer prevention. Conclusions: We observed that among Mexican-American women, reproductive risk factors were associated with breast cancer where the woman was born (US or Mexico). Having a family history of breast cancer, especially having either a first- or second-degree relative diagnosed at a younger age, was strongly associated with TNBC subtype. These results are consistent with other published studies in this area. Further, our results indicate that women with strong family histories of breast cancer are more likely to undertake mammography but not to engage in healthier lifestyle behaviors.
Kamrudin, Samira Ahmad, "Breast cancer risk factors among Mexican-American women" (2013). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI3592643.