XIPHOPHORUS ENZYME GENE EXPRESSION: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, GENETIC CONTROL, AND STABILITY IN CULTURED CELLS
Five permanent cell lines were developed from Xiphophorus maculatus, X. helleri, and their hybrids using three tissue sources, including adults and embryos of different stages. To evaluate cell line gene expression for retention of either tissue-of-origin-specific or ontogenetic stage-specific characters, the activity distribution of 44 enzyme loci was determined in 11 X. maculatus tissues, and the developmental genetics of 17 enzyme loci was charted in X. helleri and in helleri x maculatus hybrids using starch gel electrophoresis. In the process, eight new loci were discovered and characterized for Xiphophorus. No Xiphophorus cell line showed retention of tissue-of-origin-specific or ontogenetic stage-specific enzyme gene expressional traits. Instead, gene expression was similar among the cell lines. One enzyme, adenosine deaminase (ADA) was an exception. Two adult-origin cell lines expressed ADA, whereas, three cell lines derived independently from embryos did not. ADA('-) expression of Xiphophorus embryo-derived cell lines may represent retention of an embryonic gene expressional trait. In one cell line (T(,3)) derived from 13 pooled interspecific hybrid (F(,2)) embryos, shifts with time were observed at enzyme loci polymorphic between the two species. This suggested shifts in ratios of cells of different genotypes in the population rather than unstable gene expression in one dominant cell type. Verification of this hypothesis was attempted by cloning the culture--seeking clones having different genetic signatures. The large number of loci electrophoretically polymorphic between the two species and whose alleles segregated independently into the 13 progeny from which this culture originated almost guaranteed the presence of different genetic signatures (lineages) in T(,3). Seven lineages of cells were found within T(,3), each expressing genotypes at some loci not characteristic of the expression of the culture-as-a-whole, supporting the hypothesis tested. Quantitative studies of ADA expression in the whole culture (ADA('-)) and in clones of these seven lineages suggested the predominance in T(,3) of ADA deficient cell lineages, although moderate to high ADA output clones also occurred. Thus, T(,3) has the potential to shift phenotypes from ADA('-) to ADA('+) by simply changing proportions of its constituent cell types, demonstrating that such shifts can occur in any cell culture containing cells of mixed expressional characteristics.
WILDRICK, DAVID MILO, "XIPHOPHORUS ENZYME GENE EXPRESSION: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, GENETIC CONTROL, AND STABILITY IN CULTURED CELLS" (1982). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8223348.