IN VITRO INDUCTION OF XENOIMMUNE RESPONSES TO LIPOSOMES CONTAINING HUMAN COLON TUMOR ANTIGENS
Liposomes prepared with human LS174T colon tumor cell membranes induce specific primary and secondary xenogeneic immune responses in BALB/c splenocytes in vitro. The multilamellar vesicular liposomes were prepared by adding sonicated membrane fragments in 8 mM CaCl(,2) to a dried lipid film. Cytoxic splenocytes generated in vivo exhibited specificity for the LS174T cell; liposomes elicited higher levels of cytotoxicity than did membranes (P < 0.01). Secondary blastogenic responses elicited in in vivo-primed spleen cells by liposomes also produced a significantly greater (P < 0.005) response than membranes. Subsequently, in vitro induction of primary blastogenic and cytotoxic responses by liposomes were accomplished and revealed similar kinetics to that of whole LS174T cell immunogens. Specificity of the in vitro-primed spleen cells was clearly demonstrated (P < 0.01) on a variety of human tumor cells using both the primed lymphocyte and cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays. The results of competitive inhibition tests with autologous lymphoblasts demonstrated that 30% of the cytotoxic activity was directed against lymphocyte antigens. The adjuvant effect of liposomes was shown to be mediated primarily by tumor antigens exposed on the outer surface of liposomes. Trypsinization of the liposomes which eliminated 96% of the surface protein reduced the ability of liposomes to induce cytotoxic splenocytes. The generation of cytolytic activity with liposomes of increasing protein concentration showed that while 10 (mu)g protein was threshold, 100 (mu)g protein induced maximal responses. In addition, membrane fluidity studies revealed that rigid liposomes were significantly (P < 0.05) more efficacious than fluid liposomes in inducing cytotoxicity. The induction of the primary response required the presence of nonadherent splenocytes bearing the Thy-1, Lyt-1, and Lyt-2 surface markers. The role of a Lyt-123 subpopulation was suggested by the inability of both the Lyt-1 and Lyt-2 depleted populations to completely restore the cytolytic levels to normal. In addition, the interaction of I-A('+) spleen adherent cells with liposomes for at least 8 hours was required to generate maximal cytotoxic activity. The phenotype of the cytotoxic effector was Thy-1('+), Lyt-2('+), and I-A('d-). Incorporation of tumor antigens into liposomes has thus enabled primary immunization in vitro to human colon cancer antigens and may afford an adaptable means to evaluate and to select specific immune responses, as well as to identify colon tumor-specific determinants.
RAPHAEL, LEONARD SIDNEY, "IN VITRO INDUCTION OF XENOIMMUNE RESPONSES TO LIPOSOMES CONTAINING HUMAN COLON TUMOR ANTIGENS" (1982). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8226289.