CYTOLOGICAL, ULTRASTRUCTURAL, AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE STRUCTURE OF PREMATURELY CONDENSED CHROMOSOMES
The phenomenon of premature chromosome condensation, resulting from fusion between mitotic and interphase cells, includes dissolution of the interphase nuclear framework, thus allowing a direct visualization of interphase chromosomes. Light microscope morphology of prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) from synchronized HeLa cells supports the model of an interphase "chromosome condensation cycle". PCC are increasingly attenuated as cells progress through G(,1). A maximum degree of decondensation is observed at active sites of DNA replication during S phase, and a condensed morphology is rapidly resumed following completion of replication of a chromosome segment. To permit ultrastructural and biochemical studies of PCC, a procedure was developed to induce premature chromosome condensation at high frequency. This was achieved by polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated fusion of a dense monolayer of mitotic and interphase cells induced by centrifugation onto lectin-coated culture dishes. Using this method, PCC induction frequencies of 60-90% are routinely obtained. Scanning electron microscope analysis of PCC spreads revealed that the extension of PCC during progression through G(,1) is accompanied by a transition of the basic 30 nm chromatin fiber from tightly packed looping fibers to extended longitudinal fibers. Sites of active DNA replication is S-PCC were indicated to be organized a single longitudinal fibers. Following replication of a chromosome segment, a rapid reorganization from the extended longitudinal fiber to packed looping fibers occurs. The postreplication maturation process appears to include the assembly of a chromosome core consisting of multiple longitudinal fibers. The role of histone H1 phosphorylation in PCC formation was investigated by acidurea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total histone extracted from metaphase chromosomes and PCC following high frequency fusion. This investigation failed to demonstrate an extensive phosphorylation of H1 associated with PCC formation. However, significant dephosphorylation of superphosphorylated metaphase chromosome H1 was observed, indicating that interphase H1-phosphatase activity is dominant over metaphase H1 kinase activity. These observations provide evidence against models suggesting a role for H1 superphosphorylation in triggering mitotic condensation of chromosomes.
HANKS, STEVEN KENT, "CYTOLOGICAL, ULTRASTRUCTURAL, AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE STRUCTURE OF PREMATURELY CONDENSED CHROMOSOMES" (1982). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8303375.