MECHANISMS OF SPECIES DIFFERENCES IN BRAIN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE SENSITIVITY TO ORGANOPHOSPHATE INHIBITION
In vitro incubation of acetylcholinesterase from brain tissue of several species with organophosphate compounds indicated that the concentrations required to inhibit 50% of acetylcholinesterase activity (IC(,50)) differed from species to species for the same compound (Murphy, et al., 1968; Andersen, et al., 1972, 1977 and 1978). The hypothesis that non-specific binding proteins (Lauwerys and Murphy, 1969a,b) exerts a protective effect on acetylcholinesterase, and thus cause the differences observed in IC(,50) studies was tested by a ('3)H-DFP binding experiment. It was found that differences in the amount of non-specific binding protein cannot explain the observed differences observed in IC(,50) studies. An alternative hypothesis, that acetylcholinesterase from different species have different affinities for binding and/or different rates of phosphorylation by organophosphate insecticides was tested by determining the apparent affinity constant (k(,a)) and apparent rate of phosphorylation (k(,p)). Kinetic studies indicated that acetylcholinesterases from different species have different sensitivities to inhibition by organophosphate insecticides, and the differences are due to different affinities for binding and/or different rates of phosphorylation by the same organophosphate compound. Studies of the spontaneous reactivation of acetylcholinesterase after inhibition by organophosphate insecticides also indicated that acetylcholinesterases from different species have different rates and extents of spontaneous reactivation. This further substantiates the hypothesis that acetylcholinesterases from different species have different kinetic characteristics with respect to organophosphate insecticides inhibition. Eleven paraoxon analogs were synthesized for a quantitative structure-activity relationship study. It was found that the electron-withdrawing power ((sigma)) and hydrophobicity ((PARAGR)) of the substituent are important in determining the anti-cholinesterase activity of paraoxon analogs. Thus, predictions of species differences in acetylcholinesterase sensitivities to paraoxon analogs can be made if the physicochemical parameters ((sigma) and (PARAGR)) of the substituents are known. In another approach, i.e. enzyme modeling, the sensitivity of rat brain acetylcholinesterase to organophosphate insecticides was used as the independent variable to predict the sensitivities of acetylcholinesterases from other species to the same compound. Regression equations were derived for each species based on nineteen organophosphate insecticides studied. It was found, that in addition to paraoxon analogs, this method is also applicable to other organophosphate compounds with wide variations in structure. Thus, the sensitivities of acetylcholinesterases from other species can also be predicted from the sensitivity of rat brain acetylcholinesterase.
WANG, CHENG, "MECHANISMS OF SPECIES DIFFERENCES IN BRAIN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE SENSITIVITY TO ORGANOPHOSPHATE INHIBITION" (1982). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8306210.