DETERMINANTS OF THE SELECTIVE PHAGOCYTOSIS OF CARCINOGENIC PARTICULATE NICKEL COMPOUNDS
Certain inorganic nickel compounds such as crystalline NiS and Ni(,3)S(,2) are potent inducers of carcinogenesis and in vitro cell transformation, while several closely-related compounds such as amorphous NiS are essentially devoid of genotoxic activity. The phenomenon of selectivity of phagocytosis among such particulate nickel compounds has been hypothesized to account for their widely varying toxicological potency, yet the determinants of this selectivity have not been well characterized. Extracellular medium composition, particle dissolution, and particle surface charge were examined as potential determinants of selective phagocytosis for the carcinogenic crystalline and noncarcinogenic amorphous modifications of NiS. Selectivity and avidity of uptake of crystalline NiS by CHO cells was not dependent upon serum: phagocytosis of crystalline, but not amorphous NiS proceeded readily in a minimal salts/glucose medium at 37(DEGREES)C. The evolution of phagocytosis-inhibiting Ni(II) from the surface of amorphous NiS particles did not demonstrably contribute to the lower uptake of these noncarcinogenic particles despite their somewhat greater dissolution rate than the readily phagocytosed crystalline NiS particles. Significant differences in surface charge were noted between crystalline and amorphous NiS, the former being more negative in charge in distilled water suspension. Exposure of amorphous NiS particles to the vigorously reducing environment of a LiAlH(,4) solution under an inert atmosphere resulted in the particles' acquisition of a more negative surface charge. Amorphous NiS particles thus treated were phagocytosed by CHO cells to an extent similar to that of untreated crystalline NiS particles and likewise were shown to induce morphological transformation of primary Syrian hamster embryo cells with a similar potency. The potentiation of uptake characteristic of LiAlH(,4)-treated amorphous NiS was lost gradually upon storage of particles in ambient oxygenated atmosphere and was lost rapidly by apparent particle surface oxidation in aerated distilled water suspensions aged for up to 7 days. Concomitant with this loss of uptake there occurred a loss of negative surface charge. These results suggest the predominant role of particle surface charge rather than adsorbed serum components or particle dissolution as a determinant of selective phagocytosis among particulate nickel compounds.
HECK, JONATHAN DANIEL, "DETERMINANTS OF THE SELECTIVE PHAGOCYTOSIS OF CARCINOGENIC PARTICULATE NICKEL COMPOUNDS" (1983). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8405460.