INDUCTION OF DNA STRAND BREAKS AND CROSS-LINKS BY THE NEW ANTICANCER AGENT 3,6-DIAZIRIDINYL-2,5-BIS(CARBOETHOXYAMINO) -1,4-BENZOQUINONE
The DNA breakage effect of the anticancer agent 3,6-diaziridinyl-2,5-bis(carboethoxyamino)-1,4-benzoquinone (AZQ, NSC-182986) on bacteriophage PM2 DNA was investigated using agarose gel electrophoresis. AZQ caused both single-stranded and double-stranded breaks after reduction with NaBH(,4), but it was not active in the native state. At 120 (mu)M, it degraded 50% of the closed circular form I DNA into 40% form II DNA (single-stranded break) and 10% form III DNA (double-stranded break). It produced a dose-response breakage between 1 (mu)M and 320 (mu)M. The DNA breakage exhibited a marked pH dependency. At 320 (mu)M, AZQ degraded 80% and 60% of form I DNA at pH 4 and 10 respectively, but none between pH 6 to 8. The DNA breakage at physiologic pH was greatly enhanced when 10 (mu)M cupric sulfate was included in the incubation mixture. The DNA strand scission was inhibited by catalase, glutathione, KI, histidine, Tiron, and DABCO. These results suggest that the DNA breakage may be caused by active oxygen metabolites including hydroxyl free radical. The bifunctional cross-linking activity of reduced AZQ on isolated calf thymus DNA was investigated by ethidium fluorescence assay. The cross-linking activity exhibited a similar pH dependency; highest in acidic and alkaline pH, inactive under neutral conditions. Using the alkaline elution method, we found that AZQ induced DNA single-stranded breaks in Chinese hamster ovary cells treated with 50 (mu)M of AZQ for 2 hr. The single-stranded break frequencies in rad equivalents were 17 with 50 (mu)M and 140 with 100 (mu)M of AZQ. In comparison, DNA cross-links appeared in cells treated with only 1 to 25 (mu)M of AZQ for 2 hr. The cross-linking frequencies in rad equivalents were 39 and 90 for 1 and 5 (mu)M of AZQ, respectively. Both DNA-DNA and DNa-protein cross-links were induced by AZQ in CHO cells as revealed by the proteinas K digestion assay. DNA cross-links increased within the first 4 hr of incubation in drug-free medium and slightly decreased by 12 hr, and most of the cross-links disappeared after cells were allowed to recovered for 24 hr. By electrochemical analysis, we found that AZQ was more readily reduced at acidic pH. However, incubation of AZQ with NaBH(,4) at pH 7.8 or 10, but not at 4, produced superoxide anion. The opening of the aziridinyl rings of AZQ at pH 4 was faster in the presence of NaBH(,4) than in its absence; no ring-opening was detected at pH 7.8 regardless of the inclusion of NaBH(,4). . . . (Author's abstract exceeds stipulated maximum length. Discontinued here with permission of author.) UMI
KING, CHEUNG LAM, "INDUCTION OF DNA STRAND BREAKS AND CROSS-LINKS BY THE NEW ANTICANCER AGENT 3,6-DIAZIRIDINYL-2,5-BIS(CARBOETHOXYAMINO) -1,4-BENZOQUINONE" (1983). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8405462.