INHIBITION OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATION OF TUMOR CELLS BY SOLUBLE FACTORS RELEASED BY ACTIVATED MACROPHAGES (CYTOTOXICITY, ELECTRON TRANSPORT, MONOCYTE)
Particular interest has been directed towards the macrophage as a primary antineoplastic cell due to its tumoricidal properties in vitro and the observation that an inverse relationship exists between the number of macrophages infiltrating a tumor and metastatic potential. The mechanism of macrophage-mediated injury of tumor cells remains unknown. Recently, it has been shown that injured tumor cells have defective mitochondrial respiration. Our studies have shown that activated macrophages can release soluble factors which can alter tumor cell respiration. The effects of a conditioned supernatant (CS) from cultures of activated macrophages on tumor cell (TC) mitochondrial respiration was studied. CS was obtained by incubation of BCG-elicited, murine peritoneal macrophage with RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% FCS and 50 ng/ml bacterial endotoxin. This CS was used to treat cultures of EMT-6 TC for 24 hours. Mitochondrial respiration was measured polarigraphically using a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Cell growth rate was assessed by ('3)H-Thymidine incorporation. Exposure of EMT-6 TC to CS resulted in the inhibition of malate and succinate oxidation 76.6% and 72.9%, respectively. While cytochrome oxidase activity was decreased 61.1%. This inhibition was accompanied by a 98.8% inhibition of DNA synthesis (('3)H-Thymidine incorporation). Inhibition was dose-related with a 21.3% inhibition of succinate oxidase from a 0.3 ml dose of CS and a 50% inhibition with 1.0 mls. Chromatography of CS on Sephacryl S-200 resulted in isolation of an 80,000 and a 55,000 dalton component which contained the respiration inhibiting activity (RIF). These factors were distinct from a 120,000 dalton cytolytic factor determined by bioassay on Actinomycin-D treated L929 cells. RIF activity was also distinct from several other cytostatic factors but was itself associated with 2 peaks of cytostatic activity. Characterization of the RIF activity showed that it was destroyed by trypsin and heat (100(DEGREES)C, 5 min). It was stable over a broad range of pH (4-9) and its production was inhibited by cycloheximide. The RIF did not have a direct effect on isolated mitochondria of TC nor did it induce the formation of a stable intracellular toxin for mitochondria. In conclusion, activated macrophages synthesize and secrete an 80,000 and a 55,000 dalton protein which inhibits the mitochondrial metabolism of TC. These factors induce a cytostatic but not a cytolytic effect on TC. The macrophage plays a role in the control of normal and tumor cell growth and in tissue involution. Inhibition of respiration may be one mechanism used by macrophages to control cell growth.
KILBOURN, ROBERT GLEN, "INHIBITION OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATION OF TUMOR CELLS BY SOLUBLE FACTORS RELEASED BY ACTIVATED MACROPHAGES (CYTOTOXICITY, ELECTRON TRANSPORT, MONOCYTE)" (1984). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8419088.