ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES AND LUNG CANCER RISK AMONG WOMEN IN HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS, 1977-1980 (OCCUPATION, SMOKING, BYSTANDER)
Excessively high, accelerating lung cancer rates among women in Harris County, Texas, prompted this case-comparison study. Objectives were to compare patterns of employment, indirect exposures, and sociodemographic variables of lung cancer cases with comparison subjects (compeers) after standardizing for possible confounders, such as age and cigarette smoking. Lung cancer cases were microscopically confirmed, white, Harris County residents. Compeers, chosen from Medicare records and Texas Department of Public Safety records, were matched on gender, race, age, resident and vital status. Personal interviews were conducted with study subjects or next-of-kin. Industries and occupations were categorized as high risk, based on previous studies. Almost all cases (95.0%) and 60.0% of compeers smoked cigarettes. The odds ratio for lung cancer and smoking is 13.9. Stopping smoking between ages 30-50 years carries a lower risk than stopping at age 58 or more years. Women's employment in a high risk industry or occupation results in consistently elevated, smoking-adjusted odds ratios. Frequency and duration of employment demonstrate a moderate dose-response effect. A temporal association exists with employment in a high risk occupation during 1940-1949. No increased risk appeared with passive smoking. Husband's employment in a construction industry or a structural occupation significantly increased the smoking-adjusted odds ratios among cases and compeers (O.R. = 2.9, 2.2). Smoking-adjusted odds ratios increased significantly when women had resided with persons employed in cement (O.R. = 3.2) or insulation (O.R. = 5.5) manufacturing, or a high rise construction industry (O.R. = 2.4). A family history of lung cancer resulted in a two-fold increase in smoking-adjusted odds ratios. Vital status of compeers affected the odds ratios. Work-related exposures appear to increase the risk of lung cancer in women although cigarette smoking has the single highest odds ratio. Indirect exposure to certain employment also plays a significant role in lung cancer in women. Investigations of specific direct and indirect hazardous exposures in the workplace and home are needed. Cigarette smoking is as hazardous for women as for men. Smoking should be prevented and eliminated.
IVES, JANET CRANSTEN, "ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES AND LUNG CANCER RISK AMONG WOMEN IN HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS, 1977-1980 (OCCUPATION, SMOKING, BYSTANDER)" (1984). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8505176.