DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN NON-INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS IN BLACK WOMEN: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF RISK FACTORS
This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of selected potential risk factors by stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among Black American women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) followed at a university diabetes clinic. DR was assessed by ophthalmoscopy and five-field retinography, and graded on counts of microaneurysms, hemorrhages and/or exudates, and presence of proliferative DR. Prevalence of other vascular diseases was assessed from medical records. Potential risk factors included age, known duration of diabetes, type of hypoglycemic treatment, concentrations of random capillary blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urine protein and fibrinogen, body mass index, and blood pressure. Prevalence of these risk factors is reported for three categories: No DR, mild background DR, severe background or proliferative DR (including surgically treated DR). Duration, age at diagnosis and treatment of diabetes, concentration of urine protein and average blood glucose, hypertension and cardiovascular disease were significantly associated with DR in univariate analysis. The covariance analysis employed stratification on duration, age at diagnosis and therapy of diabetes. The highest DR scores were calculated for those diagnosed before age 45, regardless of duration, therapy, or average blood glucose. Only individuals diagnosed before age 45 had high blood glucose concentrations in all categories of duration. These findings suggest that in this clinic population of Black women, those diagnosed with NIDDm before age 45 who eventually required insulin treatment were at the greatest risk of developing DR and that longterm poor glucose control is a contributing factor. These results suggest that greater emphasis be placed on this subgroup in allocating the limited resources available to improve the quality of glucose regulation, particularly through measures affecting compliance behavior. Findings concerning the association of DR with concentration of blood glucose and urine protein, blood pressure/hypertension and weight were compared with those reported from American Indian and Mexican American populations of the Southwestern United States where prevalence of NIDDM, hypertension and obesity is also high. Additional comparative analyses are outlined to substantiate the preliminary finding that there are systematic differences between these ethnic populations.
UNTERHARNSCHEIDT, ANNELIESE GUNTHER, "DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN NON-INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS IN BLACK WOMEN: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF RISK FACTORS" (1984). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8505184.