CISPLATIN NEPHROTOXICITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON GENTAMICIN PHARMACOKINETICS
Myelosuppression is a common side effect of anticancer agents such as cisplatin. This makes patients more susceptible to infections. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is very effective in the treatment of gram negative infections. Both these drugs are excreted by the kidney, and are also nephrotoxic. Thus, each may affect the disposition of the other. This project deals with the nature and duration of the effects of cisplatin on gentamicin pharmacokinetics in F-344 rats. The appropriate cisplatin dose was determined by comparing the nephrotoxicity of four intravenous doses--3, 4, 5, and 6 mg/kg. The 6 mg/kg dose gave the most consistent nephrotoxic effect, with peak plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine levels on the 7th day. Plasma and tissue gentamicin levels were compared between rats given gentamicin alone (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, twice a day for four days), and those given cisplatin (6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) with the first gentamicin dose. Cisplatin caused a significant elevation of gentamicin levels in plasma, liver, and spleen. However, cisplatin given in three weekly doses of 2 mg/kg each, had no effect on plasma or tissue gentamicin levels. In order to determine the duration of cisplatin effects, a single dose of gentamicin (30 mg/kg, intravenously) was given to different groups of rats either alone, or on day 1, 4, 7, 15, or 29 following cisplatin (6 mg/kg, intravenously on day 1). Plasma samples were collected through a cannula placed on the external jugular vein at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after gentamicin; the rats were sacrificed at 24 hours. Cisplatin caused a significant decrease in gentamicin excretion and an elevation of gentamicin levels in plasma, kidneys, liver, and spleen at all the time points that were tested, except with concomitant administration. Plasma urea nitrogen was elevated, and creatinine clearance decreased by the 4th day after cisplatin and these continued to be significantly different even on the 29th day after cisplatin. These results demonstrate that cisplatin nephrotoxicity reduced gentamicin excretion for at least a month in F-344 rats. This could increase the risk of toxicity from the second drug by elevating its levels in plasma and tissue. Thus, caution should be exercised when renally excreted drugs are given after cisplatin.
ENGINEER, MEHER SOLI, "CISPLATIN NEPHROTOXICITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON GENTAMICIN PHARMACOKINETICS" (1986). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8613758.