SYSTEMIC TOXICITY IN RODENTS FOLLOWING ACUTE AND SUBCHRONIC INHALATION OF FORMALDEHYDE (FLOW CYTOMETRY, CELL CYCLE KINETICS, ALKALINE ELUTION)
Systemic toxicity was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and A-strain mice exposed to HCHO inhalation at 0, 0.5, 3, or 15 ppm for six hours/day, five days/week for up to 24 weeks. Toxicity was measured by flow cytometry to detect changes in cell cycle RNA and DNA content and by alkaline elution to detect DNA protein cross-link (DPC) formation. A G(,2)M block was detected in SD rat marrow following one week of exposure to 0.5, 3, or 15 ppm HCHO, but this block did not persist. No effect was noticed in mouse marrow. Only a minimal increase in RNA content was detected in rat or mouse marrow while exfoliated lung cells showed a significant increase in RNA activity after one week of exposure. Acute exposure in SD rats for four hours/day for one or three days at 150 ppm showed an increase in RNA activity in exfoliated lung cells but not in the marrow after one day. On the third day, dead cells were detected in exfoliated lung cells. In alkaline elution studies, no DPC were detected in marrow of SD rats after 24 weeks exposure up to 15 ppm. During acute exposures, a dose response relationship was detected in SD rat exfoliated lung cells which yielded cross-linking factors of 0.954, 1.237, and 1.417 following a four hour exposure to 15, 50, or 150 ppm, respectively. No DPC were detected in the marrow at 150 ppm. In vitro exposures to HCHO of CHO and SHE cells and rat marrow cells revealed the production of DPC and DNA-DNA cross-links. Cytoxan treatment of SD rats was used to provide positive controls for flow cytometry and alkaline elution. A drastic reduction in RNA content and cycling cells occurred one day following treatment. After four days, RNA content was greatly increased; and on day eleven the marrow had regenerated. DPCs were detected in both the marrow and the exfoliated lung cells. The lack of significant responses in SD rats and A-strain mice below 15 ppm HCHO is explainable by host defense mechanisms. Apparently, the mucociliary apparatus and enzymatic detoxification are sufficient to reduce systemic toxicity to low level concentrations of formaldehyde.
MELLARD, DAVID NATHAN, "SYSTEMIC TOXICITY IN RODENTS FOLLOWING ACUTE AND SUBCHRONIC INHALATION OF FORMALDEHYDE (FLOW CYTOMETRY, CELL CYCLE KINETICS, ALKALINE ELUTION)" (1986). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8617354.