THE MECHANISM OF RETINOIC ACID REGULATION OF TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE GENE EXPRESSION
Retinoic acid regulates cellular growth and differentiation by altering the expression of specific sets of genes, but the molecular mechanism by which this is achieved is unknown. We have used the rapid induction of a specific enzyme, tissue transglutaminase in mouse macrophages, human leukemia cells and a variety of other cell types to study the regulation of gene expression by retinoic acid. Soluble retinoic acid binding proteins, such as cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein (cRABP), have been proposed as specific mediators of retinoic acid regulation of gene expression. This thesis demonstrates the lack of cRABP in a number of cell lines which are sensitive to retinoic acid regulation of tissue transglutaminase expression. These cells are also devoid of other soluble retinoic acid binding activity. The level of retinoic acid binding activity that could have been detected (6 fmol) is far below that of most cells and tissues which are sensitive to the effects of retinoic acid on growth and differentiation. A mouse melanoma cell line, S91-C2, was found to contain an unusual retinoic acid binding protein which has a lower affinity for retinoic acid than mouse tissue cRABP and also behaves differently on gel filtration HPLC chromatography. The induction of tissue transglutaminase by retinoic acid in macrophages is specifically inhibited by pertussis toxin. Pertussis toxin ADP-riblosylates membrane GTP-binding proteins such as N(,i) and interferes with signalling from plasma membrane receptors to regulatory enzymes. Pertussis toxin inhibition of transglutaminase induction is due to inhibition of tissue transglutaminase mRNA accumulation and is paralleled by the ADP-ribosylation of a 41,000 dalton macrophage membrane protein. It is concluded that soluble retinoic acid binding proteins are not essential for retinoic acid induction of tissue transglutaminase and that a membrane GTP-binding protein is closely linked to the sensitive response of macrophages to retinoic acid.
JOHNSON, JEFFREY DALE, "THE MECHANISM OF RETINOIC ACID REGULATION OF TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE GENE EXPRESSION" (1986). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8628826.