BENZENE MYELOCLASTOGENICITY AND METABOLISM IN CD-1 MICE: A CORRELATION
Benzene was studied in its target organ of effect, the bone marrow, with the micronucleus test and metaphase chromosomal analysis. Groups of 5 or 10, male and female CD-1 mice were treated with one or two p.o. or i.p. doses of benzene (440 mg/kg) or toluene (430, 860 or 1720 mg/kg) or both, and sacrificed 30 or 54h after the first dose. Benzene-treated animals were pretreated with phenobarbital (PB), 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), (beta)-naphthoflavone ((beta)NF), SKF-525A, or Aroclor 1254. Toluene showed no clastogenic activity and reduced the clastogenic effect of co-administered benzene. None of the pretreatments protected against benzene clastogenicity. 3MC and (beta)NF greatly promoted benzene myeloclastogenicity. Dose response curves for benzene myeloclastogenicity were much steeper with 3MC induction than without. Micronuclei (MN) were 4-6 times higher by p.o. than i.p. benzene administration. This was not due to bacterial flora since no difference was found between germ-free and conventional males gavaged with benzene. A sensitive high-pressure liquid chromatographic method was developed and used to explore the relation between metabolic profiles of benzene in urine and MN after various pretreatments. Phenol (PH), trans-trans-muconic acid (MA) and hydroquinone (HQ) in the 48h male mouse urine accounted, respectively, for 12.8-22.8, 1.8-4.7 and 1.5-3.7% of the single oral dose of benzene (880, 440 and 220 mg/kg). Catechol (CT) was seen in trace amounts. MA was identified by ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Urinary metabolites--especially MA, HQ, and phenol glucuronide--correlated well with MN and were dependent on both the dose and the metabolism of benzene. Benzene metabolism was most inducible by cytochrome P-448 enzyme inducers, by p.o. > i.p., in males > females, and inhibited by toluene. Ph, CT or HQ administered p.o., 250, 150 and 250 mg/kg, respectively, or at 150 mg/kg x 2 after 3MC pretreatment, failed to reproduce the potent myeloclastogenicity of benzene. In fact, only HQ was mildly clastogenic.
GAD-EL KARIM, MOHY MORRIS, "BENZENE MYELOCLASTOGENICITY AND METABOLISM IN CD-1 MICE: A CORRELATION" (1986). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8712591.