SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ANTITUMOR ALDOPHOSPHAMIDE ACETALS
Although the major metabolic pathways of cyclophosphamide are well established, the mechanism of antitumor drug selectivity is highly controversial. However, it is widely accepted that aldophosphamide, one of the primary metabolites, plays a crucial role in drug selectivity. In an attempt to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of selectivity of cyclophosphamide, a series of aldophosphamide analogs have been synthesized. The new analogs, unlike aldophosphamide, are relatively stable in neutral solution; however, they are converted rapidly to aldehydo intermediates in the presence of carboxylate esterase. Due to structural differences, these analogs may be classified into three different groups, arbitrarily designated as A, B, C, depending upon the facility with which the intermediate aldehydes form 4-hydroxy cyclic tautomers. The half-life of the aldehydo/4-hydroxy cyclic tautomeric mixture is longer for bis(acetoxy)aldophosphamide acetal I (a representative of group A), shorter for the n-ethyl analog III (B), and shortest for the N,N-dimethyl analog IV (C). The ratio of aldophosphamide: 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide at pseudoequilibrium is 1: 4 for compound I, 1: 2 for compound III and 0: 1 for compound IV. The therapeutic efficacy of these compounds are group A $>$ group B $>$ group C. It is apparent that the equilibrium position between the aldehydo and 4-hydroxy cyclic tautomers, which determines their stability, is a crucial determinant of both the cytotoxicity and antitumor selectivity. These findings, taken in conjunction with the aldehyde dehydrogenase selectivity hypothesis, may provide an explanation for the unique antitumor activity of cyclophosphamide.
WANG, YUQIANG, "SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ANTITUMOR ALDOPHOSPHAMIDE ACETALS" (1987). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8800594.