Chromosomal control of the dominant suppression of ras-mediated transformation
The role of tumor suppressor function in the multistep process of carcinogenesis was studied in the human teratocarcinoma cell line PA-1. Early passage PA-1 cells ($<$P100) are preneoplastic while late passage ($>$P100) PA-1 cells are spontaneously transformed. Previous work demonstrated a causal role for the N-ras oncogene in the neoplastic transformation of this cell line and the gene was cloned. A clonal cell line established at passage 40 has been shown to suppress the neoplastic transformation potential of the PA-1 N-ras oncogene in gene transfer experiments. This phenotype has been termed SRT+ for suppression of ras transformation. A clonal cell line established at passage 63 is neoplastically transformed by the N-ras in similar gene transfer experiments and is regarded as srt$-$. Somatic cell hybrids were formed between the SRT+ cell and two different N-ras transformed srt$-$ cells. The results indicate that five of the seven independent hybrid clones, and all 14 subclones, failed to form tumors in the nude mouse tumor assay. Chromosomal analysis of rare neoplastic segregants which arose from suppressed hybrid populations demonstrate that the general loss of chromosomes correlates with the reemergence of neoplastic transformation. Karyotype analyses demonstrate a statistically correlative loss of chromosomes 1, 4, 19, and to a lesser extent 11, 14, and 16. DNA hybridization analysis demonstrates a single copy of the intact N-ras oncogene in parental cells, suppressed hybrids, and neoplastically transformed hybrids. These results indicate that functional ras transformation suppression is a trans-dominant trait which may be controlled by sequences residing on particular chromosomes in the human genome. Furthermore, the suppression of ras transformation results from a unique step in the multistep process of carcinogenesis that is different from the induction of immortality. Thus, the neoplastic process of the PA-1 cell line involves at least three steps: (1) induction of immortality, (2) activation of the N-ras oncogene, and (3) loss of tumor suppressor function.
Krizman, David Burke, "Chromosomal control of the dominant suppression of ras-mediated transformation" (1988). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI8914944.