Suppression of peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation by a periodontopathic bacteria Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

Niramon Kittayanond, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston


Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) is a gram-negative coccobacillus implicated as a major pathogen in juvenile periodontitis. The immunosuppressive activity of a sonic extract (designated 100SN) derived from Aa was investigated. 100SN suppressed spontaneous proliferation as well as proliferative response to the mitogens, PHA and PWM, of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). 100SN-induced suppression of PHA-stimulated proliferation was heat-sensitive, inactivated by pronase and trypsin, dose-dependent and non-cytotoxic. There were no significant changes in the CD4$\sp+$ or CD8$\sp+$ subsets of PBMC after 7-day incubation with 100SN. There was a trend toward increased levels of the CD4$\sp+$CD45R$\sp{\rm hi}$CDw29$\sp{\rm lo}$ (naive cells, associated with suppressor-inducer activity) and CD4$\sp+$CDw29$\sp{\rm hi}$CD45R$\sp{\rm lo}$ (memory cells, associated with helper-inducer activity) subsets. The target of 100SN appeared to be the non-adherent cells and suppression by 100SN could not be reversed by indomethacin (IDM), the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The mechanism of 100SN-induced suppression was studied in terms of inhibition involving IL-2-regulated T cell proliferation and the results point to the possibility that suppression occurred subsequent to IL-2 receptor binding. The suppressive activity observed could occur through multiple mechanisms including cell-cell; contact or release of soluble factors. Supernatants derived from 7-day cultures of PBMC and 100SN (designated CSN-A) were able to suppress proliferative response of PBMC to PHA without affecting cell viability. Analysis of CSN-A showed that it contained PGE2 and soluble IL-2 receptors. Suppression by CSN-A could be partially overcome by either IDM or exogenous IL-2. Significant suppression was also maintained when both IDM and exogenous IL-2 were added at the same time. These findings suggest that PGE2 and soluble IL-2 receptors contribute to the suppression observed but other suppressive cytokine(s) may be involved. Collectively, the data indicate that a factor derived from oral bacteria associated with juvenile periodontitis have profound effects on cellular immune responses, and that these effects may be partially mediated by secondary factors produced by the host in response to the bacteria.

Subject Area

Dental care|Immunology

Recommended Citation

Kittayanond, Niramon, "Suppression of peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation by a periodontopathic bacteria Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans" (1989). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9015716.