Mechanisms for the release of dopamine from turtle retina
The retinal circuitry underlying the release of dopamine was examined in the turtle, Pseudemys scripta elegans, using neurochemical release studies, anatomical techniques, and biochemistry. There was a dose- and calcium-dependent release of dopamine from turtle retinas incubated in $\sp3$H-dopamine after perfusion of the GABA antagonist bicuculline. This indicated that dopamine release was tonically inhibited by GABA. Other putative retinal transmitters were examined. Glutamate antagonists selective for hyperpolarizing bipolar cells, such as 2,3-piperidine dicarboxylic acid (PDA), caused dose- and calcium-dependent release of dopamine from the retina. In contrast, release was not observed after perfusion with 4-aminophosphonobutyric acid, a specific antagonist of depolarizing bipolar cells. This indicated that depolarizing bipolar cells were not involved in retinal circuitry underlying the release of dopamine in the turtle retina. The release produced by PDA was blocked by bicuculline, indicating a polysynaptic mechanism of release. None of the other agents tested, which included carbachol, strychnine, dopamine uptake inhibitors, serotonin, tryptamine, muscimol, melatonin, or dopamine itself produced release. The cells capable of the release of dopamine were identified using both uptake autoradiography and immunocytochemical localization with dopamine antisera. The simplest circuitry based on these findings is signal transmission from photoreceptors to hyperpolarizing bipolar cells then to GABAergic cells, and finally to dopaminergic amacrine cells.
Critz, Stuart Damian, "Mechanisms for the release of dopamine from turtle retina" (1988). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9015719.