The relationship between calcium and fluoride intake, pregnancy and lactation and the risk of height loss in white women
This study was designed to investigate the effect of calcium and fluoride intake, and parity and lactation on the risk of spinal osteoporosis. Height loss was used as a surrogate measure for spinal fractures by taking advantage of documented changes in height found during the 25-year follow-up of the Charleston Heart Study cohort. Women who had lost 2-4" in height or who had no change in height during the follow-up period were defined as case and comparison subjects respectively. Calcium intake when the subjects were "about 25" and in the recent past, average intake of fluoride over 25 years, and parity and history of breastfeeding were ascertained by questionnaire from 54 case and 77 comparison subjects. Low calcium intake in the past decreased the risk of height loss (age-adjusted OR = 0.3, 95%CI: 0.1-0.96) although several potentially important confounding variables could not be adjusted for. There was no association between risk of height loss and present calcium intake (OR = 0.8, 95%CI: 0.3-2.6 for low versus high intake) after adjustment for past calcium intake. High fluoride intake decreased the risk of height loss (adjusted OR = 0.4, 95%CI: 0.1-1.2). The effect of fluoride or calcium intake in the present was modified by the level of the other nutrient. Compared to a low intake of both calcium and fluoride, a high intake of one increased the risk of height loss (crude OR = 3.3 for high fluoride/low calcium, crude OR = 6.0 for high calcium/low fluoride) although a high intake of both was slightly protective (crude OR = 0.7). It is estimated that a "high" nutrient intake in this population was greater than 850mg/day for calcium and 2mg/day for fluoride. After adjustment for age, increasing parity decreased the risk of height loss in women who had never breastfed (OR = 0.2, 95%CI: 0.01-1.7 for 4 or more children). Women who had breastfed were also at lower risk of height loss than nulliparous women (OR = 0.3, 95%CI: 0.1-1.2 for 4 or more children) although at any level of parity, breastfeeding women had a greater risk of height loss than did non-breastfeeding women.
Nutrition|Surgery|Public health|Womens studies
Mackerras, Dorothy Elizabeth Mary, "The relationship between calcium and fluoride intake, pregnancy and lactation and the risk of height loss in white women" (1988). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9020188.