Dissection of antitumor activity by lymphokine -activated killer cells: Role of FcR+ precursors and obligatory role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) cultured for varying lengths of time in IL-2 are able to mediate antibody independent cellular cytotoxicity (AICC) as well as antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against a wide range of tumor targets. The objective of our study is to determine the cytotoxic potential of the subset of LAK cells involved in ADCC, the tumor recognition mechanism in ADCC, the kinetics of ADCC mediated by PBL cultured under various conditions and the role of TNF-$\alpha$ in the development and maturation of ADCC effectors in the LAK population. The model system in this study for ADCC used a monoclonal antibody 14G2a (IgG2a), that recognizes the GD2 epitope on human melanoma cell line, SK-Mel-1. The target recognition mechanism operative in AICC (traditionally known as lymphokine activated killing or LAK) is an acquired property of these IL-2 activated cells which confers on them the unique ability to distinguish between tumor and normal cells. This recognition probably involves the presence of a trypsin sensitive N-linked glycoprotein epitope on tumor cells. Proteolytic treatment of the tumor cells with trypsin renders them resistant to AICC by PBL cultured in IL-2. However, ADCC is unaffected. This ADCC, mediated by the relatively small population of cells that are positive for the Fc receptor for IgG (FcR), is an indication that this subset of "LAK" cells does not require the trypsin sensitive epitope on tumor cells to mediate killing. Enriching PBL for FcR+ cells markedly enhanced both AICC and ADCC and also reduced the IL-2 requirement of these cells. The stoichiometry of Fc receptor (FcR) expression on the cytotoxic effectors does not correlate with ADCC lytic activity. Although FcRs are necessary to mediate ADCC, other factors, appear to regulate the magnitude of cytolytic activity. In order to investigate these putative factors, the kinetics of ADCC development was studied under various conditions (in IL-2 (10u/ml) and 100u/ml), in IL-2(10u/ml) + TNF$\alpha$ (500u/ml) and in TNF-$\alpha$ (500u/ml) alone). Addition of exogenous TNF-$\alpha$ into the four hour cytotoxicity assay did not increase ADCC, nor did anti-TNF antibodies result in inhibition. On the other hand, addition of anti-TNF antibodies to PBL and IL-2 for 24 hours, resulted in a marked inhibition of the ADCC, suggesting that endogenous TNF-$\alpha$ is obligatory for the maturation and differentiation of ADCC effectors.
Lagoo-Deenadayalan, Sandhya Anand, "Dissection of antitumor activity by lymphokine -activated killer cells: Role of FcR+ precursors and obligatory role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity" (1990). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9100852.