Molecular basis of retinoid action: The role of retinoic acid receptors in retinoic acid-induced tissue transglutaminase expression
Retinoic acid has profound effects on the cellular growth and differentiation of a variety of cells. However, the molecular basis of retinoic acid action has, until recently, not been well understood. The identification of retinoic acid receptors which bear a high degree of homology to members of the steroid receptor super-family has dramatically altered our understanding of the biology of retinoids. The focus of this dissertation has been toward identification of retinoic acid binding proteins responsible for the effects of this molecule on gene expression. We have characterized in detail the retinoic acid-dependent induction of tissue transglutaminase gene expression in a myeloid cell line, human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60 cells). Using cDNA probes specific for tissue transglutaminase, we have determined that the retinoic acid induced increase in enzyme level is due to an increase in the level of tissue transglutaminase mRNA. We have used this model as a probe to investigate the molecular basis of retinoid regulated gene expression. This thesis demonstrates that retinoic acid receptors are expressed in cells which induce tissue transglutaminase expression in response to retinoic acid. In Hl-60 cells retinoic acid-induced transglutaminase expression is associated with saturable nuclear retonic acid binding. Transcripts for both the alpha and beta forms of the retinoic acid receptors can be detected in these cells. Pretreatment of HL-60 cells with agents that potentiate retinoic acid-induced transglutaminase expression also modestly induced the alpha form of the retinoic acid receptor. Studies in macrophages and umbilical vein endothelial cells have also associated expression of the beta form of the retinoic acid with retinoic acid induced tissue transglutaminase expression. To investigate directly if retinoic acid receptors regulate retinoic acid-induced tissue transglutaminase expression we developed a series of stably transfected Balb-c 3T3 cells expressing different levels of the beta or gamma form of the retinoic acid receptor. These studies indicated that either the beta or gamma receptor can stimulate endogenous tissue transglutaminase expression in response to retinoic acid. These are among the first studies in the steroid field to describe regulation of an endogenous gene by a transfected receptor.
Basilion, James Peter, "Molecular basis of retinoid action: The role of retinoic acid receptors in retinoic acid-induced tissue transglutaminase expression" (1990). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9120271.