cAMP-dependent protein kinase and heterologous desensitization of the adenylyl cyclase
Previous experiments had shown no differences in desensitization in cells with mutations of the adenylyl cyclase or the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and had ruled out this kinase as a mediator of desensitization; however, the assays of adenylyl cyclase had been made at high concentrations of free magnesium. The work presented in this dissertation documents a role for cAMP-dependent protein kinase which became apparent with assays at low concentrations of free magnesium. (1) The adenylyl cyclase in membranes from wild type S49 lymphoma cells showed substantial desensitization after incubation of the intact cells with low concentrations of epinephrine (5-20 nM). This desensitization was heterologous, that is it reduced the subsequent responses of the adenylyl cyclase to both epinephrine and prostaglandin-E$\sb1$. (2) The adenylyl cyclase in membranes of S49 cyc$\sp-$ cells, which do not make cAMP in response to hormones, and S49 kin$\sp-$ cells, which lack cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, showed no heterologous desensitization following incubation of the intact cells with low concentrations of hormones. (3) Heterologous desensitization of the adenylyl cyclase was induced by incubations of wild type cells with forskolin, which activates the adenylyl cyclase downstream of the hormone receptors, or dibutyryl-cAMP, which activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase directly. (4) Site-directed mutagenesis was used to delete the cAMP-dependent protein kinase consensus phosphorylation sequences on the $\beta$-adrenergic receptor. Heterologous desensitization occurred in intact L-cells expressing the wild type receptor or the receptor lacking the C-terminal phosphorylation site; however, only homologous desensitization occurred when the phosphorylation site on the third intracellular loop of the receptor was deleted. (5) To test directly the effects of cAMP-dependent protein kinase on the adenylyl cyclase the catalytic subunit of the kinase was purified from bovine heart and incubated with adenylyl cyclase in plasma membrane preparations. In this cell-free system the kinase caused rapid heterlogous reductions of the responsiveness of the S49 wild type adenylyl cyclase. Additionally, the adenylyl cyclase in kin$\sp-$ membranes, which showed only homologous desensitization in the intact cell, was desensitization by cell-free incubation with the kinase. The epinephrine responsiveness was not affected in L-cell membranes expressing the $\beta$-adrenergic receptor lacking the cAMP-dependent protein kinase consensus sequence on the third intracellular loop.
Kunkel, Mark William, "cAMP-dependent protein kinase and heterologous desensitization of the adenylyl cyclase" (1991). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9120627.