Characterization of the MLC box: A conservedcis-acting DNA element present in the chicken MLC1s/1c gene
The slow/cardiac alkali myosin light chain (MLC1s/1c) is a member of a multigene family whose protein products are essential for activation of the myosin ATPase. In the adult, the MLC1s/1c isoform is expressed in both cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscles, while it is expressed by all skeletal muscles during development. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the transcriptional regulation of MLC1s/1c gene expression, the immediate 5$\sp\prime$ flanking region of the gene was isolated and shown to be capable of directing reporter gene expression. Analysis of this region revealed a 110 bp muscle-specific enhancer that includes a myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor 2 (MEF-2) site, E-boxes, which are potential binding sites for the basic-helix-loop-helix proteins such as MyoD, and a MLC box. The focus of the thesis was to identify the role of the MLC box in expression of the MLC1s/1c gene. The MLC box is a member of the family of CArG box containing cis-acting DNA elements. Mutagenesis showed that the MLC box is necessary, but not sufficient, for the expression of a reporter gene linked to the 5$\sp\prime$ flanking region of the MLC1s/1c gene. Linker scanner and site-directed mutagenesis identified a number of potential sites within the 110 bp muscle-specific enhancer that may cooperate with the MLC box. These are the MEF-2 site, the E-box site, and a 10 bp element located upstream of the MEF-2 site that does not have sequence similarity with any known cis-acting element. The MLC box is capable of binding to factors present in muscle nuclear extracts, as well as to human recombinant serum response factor (SRF). Binding of SRF to the MLC box was correlated with the ability of the 5$\sp\prime$ flanking region of the MLC1s/1c gene to drive reporter gene expression. Results suggest a model in which binding of SRF to the MLC box activates expression of the MLC1s/1c gene while binding of the factors present in the nuclear extracts suppresses the expression of the gene. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.)
Papadopoulos, Nickolas, "Characterization of the MLC box: A conservedcis-acting DNA element present in the chicken MLC1s/1c gene" (1992). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9217767.