Cigarette smoking and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among colposcopy patients
Epidemiologic and biochemical evidence suggest that smoking is an independent risk factor for cervical neoplasia; however, only two studies have adjusted by the potential confounding effect of human papillomavirus (HPV). To determine the association between self-reported current cigarette smoking and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), we conducted a case-control study that controlled for HPV infection and other reported risk factors. The medical records of all new patients referred to the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (UTMDACC) Colposcopy Clinic were reviewed. The study population (n = 564) consisted of all white, black, and Hispanic non-pregnant women who were residents of Texas, and had no history of treatment for cervical neoplasia. Cases (n = 313) included women diagnosed at the UTMDACC with CIN; while controls (n = 251) included those patients diagnosed at the colposcopy clinic as non-CIN (negative 47%, inflammation or atypia 25%, and koilocytosis 27%). Diagnosis was based on a colposcopically directed biopsy in 95% of the subjects, and all subjects were tested for HPV by dot blot hybridization. The crude odds ratio for cigarette smoking and CIN was 1.37 (95% CI 0.97-1.95); however, after adjusting for HPV, age, education, race, number of sexual partners, and age at first sexual intercourse, the odds ratio decreased to 0.91 (95% CI 0.61-1.41). A higher crude odds ratio was observed with CIN 3 (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.08-2.83), but this effect also disappeared after adjustment (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.57-1.96). Similar results were observed when controlling only for HPV: OR = 1.11 (95% CI 0.77-1.59) for CIN combined and 1.25 (95% CI 0.76-2.08) for CIN 3. These findings suggest that cigarette smoking is not an independent risk factor for CIN in this population, and that HPV may be an important confounding factor for this association.
Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo, "Cigarette smoking and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among colposcopy patients" (1992). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9307911.