Development of a SPECT-based three-dimensional treatment planner for radionuclide therapy with iodine-131

Huan Bosco Giap, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston


Accurate calculation of absorbed dose to target tumors and normal tissues in the body is an important requirement for establishing fundamental dose-response relationships for radioimmunotherapy. Two major obstacles have been the difficulty in obtaining an accurate patient-specific 3-D activity map in-vivo and calculating the resulting absorbed dose. This study investigated a methodology for 3-D internal dosimetry, which integrates the 3-D biodistribution of the radionuclide acquired from SPECT with a dose-point kernel convolution technique to provide the 3-D distribution of absorbed dose. Accurate SPECT images were reconstructed with appropriate methods for noise filtering, attenuation correction, and Compton scatter correction. The SPECT images were converted into activity maps using a calibration phantom. The activity map was convolved with an $\sp{131}$I dose-point kernel using a 3-D fast Fourier transform to yield a 3-D distribution of absorbed dose. The 3-D absorbed dose map was then processed to provide the absorbed dose distribution in regions of interest. This methodology can provide heterogeneous distributions of absorbed dose in volumes of any size and shape with nonuniform distributions of activity. Comparison of the activities quantitated by our SPECT methodology to true activities in an Alderson abdominal phantom (with spleen, liver, and spherical tumor) yielded errors of $-$16.3% to 4.4%. Volume quantitation errors ranged from $-$4.0 to 5.9% for volumes greater than 88 ml. The percentage differences of the average absorbed dose rates calculated by this methodology and the MIRD S-values were 9.1% for liver, 13.7% for spleen, and 0.9% for the tumor. Good agreement (percent differences were less than 8%) was found between the absorbed dose due to penetrating radiation calculated from this methodology and TLD measurement. More accurate estimates of the 3-D distribution of absorbed dose can be used as a guide in specifying the minimum activity to be administered to patients to deliver a prescribed absorbed dose to tumor without exceeding the toxicity limits of normal tissues.

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Recommended Citation

Giap, Huan Bosco, "Development of a SPECT-based three-dimensional treatment planner for radionuclide therapy with iodine-131" (1994). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9426535.