Structure and function study of prostaglandin H synthase
Prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) is a key enzyme in biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin. It has two activities, cyclooxygenase and peroxidase. "PGHS" means PGHS-1. A current hypothesis considers the cyclooxygenase reaction to be a free radical chain reaction, initiated by interaction of the synthase peroxidase with hydroperoxides leading to the production of a tyrosyl free radical. According to this hypothesis, tyrosyl residue(s) may play a key role in the cyclooxygenase reaction. Tetranitromethane (TNM) can relatively selectively nitrate tyrosines at pH 8.0. The effect of TNM on both cyclooxygenase activity and peroxidase activity has been examined: reaction of the synthase holoenzyme with TNM at pH 8.0 led to inactivation of both activities, with the cyclooxygenase activity being lost rapidly and completely, while the peroxidase activity was lost more slowly. Indomethacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, can protect the synthase from the inactivation of TNM. Amino acid analyses indicated that a loss of tyrosine and formation of nitrotyrosine residues occurred during reaction with TNM, and that TNM-reacted holoenzyme with $<$10% residual cyclooxygenase activity had about 2.0 nitrotyrosine/subunit. PGH synthase is known to be an endoplasmic reticulum membrane-associated protein. Antibodies directed at particular PGHS peptide segments and indirect immunofluorescence have been used to characterize the membrane topology of crucial portions of PGHS. PGHS was expressed in COS-1 cells transfected with the appropriate cDNA. Stably-transfected human endothelial cells were also used for the topology study. The cells were treated with streptolysin-O, which selectively permeabilizes the plasma membrane, or with saponin to achieve general membrane disruption, before incubation with the antipeptide antibodies. Bound antipeptide antibody was stained by FITC-labelled secondary antibody and visualized by fluorescence microscopy. With the antipeptide antibodies against residues 51-66, 156-170 or 377-390, there was a significant reticular and perinuclear pattern of staining in cells permeabilized with saponin but not in cells permeabilized with SLO alone. Antibodies directed against the endogenous C-terminal peptide or against residues 271-284 produced staining in cells permeabilized with saponin, and also in a lower, but significant fraction of cells permeabilized with SLO. Similar results were obtained when COS-1 cells expressing recombinant PGHS with a viral reporter peptide inserted at the C-terminus were stained with antibody against the reporter epitope. The PGHS C-terminal sequence is similar to that of the consensus KDEL ER retention signal. The potential function of the PGHS C-terminus segment in ER retention was examined by mutating this segment and analyzing the subcellular distribution of the mutants expressed in COS-1 cells. None of the mutants had an altered subcellular distribution, although some had greatly diminished the enzyme activities. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Molecular biology|Cellular biology|Biochemistry
Ren, Yong, "Structure and function study of prostaglandin H synthase" (1994). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9426540.