Regulation of the gastrin-releasing peptide/bombesin receptor

Barbara Yuno-Rhan Ho Williams, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston


Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and other bombesin-like peptides stimulate hormone secretion and cell proliferation by binding to specific G-protein-coupled receptors. Three studies were performed to identify potential mechanisms involved in GRP/bombesin receptor regulation. Although bombesin receptors are localized throughout the gastrointestinal tract, few gastrointestinal cell lines are available to study bombesin action. In the first study, the binding and function of bombesin receptors in the human HuTu-80 duodenal cancer cell line were characterized. ($\sp{125}$I-Tyr$\sp4$) bombesin bound with high affinity to a GRP-preferring receptor. Bombesin treatment increased IP$\sb3$ production, but had no effect on cell proliferation. Similar processing of ($\sp{125}$I-Tyr$\sp4$) bombesin and of GRP-receptors was observed in HuTu-80 cells and Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, a cell line which mitogenically responds to bombesin. Therefore, the lack of a bombesin mitogenic effect in HuTu-80 cells is not due to unusual processing of ($\sp{125}$I-Tyr$\sp4$) bombesin or rapid GRP-receptor down-regulation. In the second study, a bombesin antagonist was developed to study the processing and regulatory events after antagonist binding. As previously shown, receptor bound agonist, ($\sp{125}$I-Tyr$\sp4$) bombesin, was rapidly internalized and degraded in chloroquine-sensitive compartments. Interestingly, receptor-bound antagonist, ($\sp{125}$I-D-Tyr$\sp6$) bombesin(6-13)PA was not internalized, but degraded at the cell-surface. In contrast to bombesin, (D-Tyr$\sp6$) bombesin(6-13)PA treatment did not cause receptor internalization. Together these results demonstrate that receptor regulation and receptor-mediated processing of antagonist is different from that of agonist. Bombesin receptors undergo acute desensitization. By analogy to other G-protein-coupled receptors, a potential desensitization mechanism may involve receptor phosphorylation. In the final study, $\sp{32}$P-labelled Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and CHO-mBR1 cells were treated with bombesin and the GRP-receptor was immunoprecipitated. In both cell lines, bombesin treatment markedly stimulated GRP-receptor phosphorylation. Furthermore, bombesin-stimulated GRP-receptor phosphorylation occurred within the same time period as bombesin-stimulated desensitization, demonstrating that these two processes are correlated. In conclusion, these studies of GRP-receptor regulation further our understanding of bombesin action and provide insight into G-protein-coupled receptor regulation in general.

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Recommended Citation

Williams, Barbara Yuno-Rhan Ho, "Regulation of the gastrin-releasing peptide/bombesin receptor" (1995). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9532511.