Mechanistic studies of mouse skin tumor promotion by chrysarobin

Michael St. John Battalora, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston


Since the anthrone chrysarobin oxidizes and generates free radicals, investigations were conducted to assess a possible role for free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin tumor promotion by chrysarobin. Epidermal glutathione levels were not noticeably altered by chrysarobin, nor did a glutathione-depleting agent enhance promotion by chrysarobin. Multiple applications of chrysarobin increased lipid peroxide levels in mouse epidermis two-fold as compared with controls. The antioxidant $\alpha$-tocopherol and the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid both inhibited production of lipid peroxides by chrysarobin. The antioxidants $\alpha$-tocopherol acetate and ascorbyl palmitate effectively inhibited promotion and promoter-related effects induced by chrysarobin. Since prooxidant states can lead to increases in intracellular Ca$\sp{2+}$, the effect of two Ca$\sp{2+}$ antagonists, verapamil and TMB-8, on chrysarobin-induced promotion and promoter-related effects were investigated. Both Ca$\sp{2+}$ antagonists inhibited promotion and promoter-related effects induced by chrysarobin, suggesting a possible role for intracellular Ca$\sp{2+}$ alterations in chrysarobin-tumor promotion. Since radical generating compounds are reported to possess the ability to enhance progression of papillomas to squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), the effects of chrysarobin on papilloma development were tested. Growth kinetics and regression of papillomas generated with limited promotion with chrysarobin were similar to what was reported for the nonradical generating promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (Aldaz et al., 1991). To test the chrysarobin's ability to enhance progression of pre-existing papillomas to SCCs, tumors were generated by initiation with dimethylbenz (a) anthracene and promotion with TPA. Then mice were treated with chrysarobin, TPA or acetone for 45 weeks. When mice treated with chrysarobin were compared to mice treated continually with TPA with similar numbers of papillomas, the number of papillomas that progressed to SCCs was similar, suggesting that papilloma burden influences the progression of papillomas to SCCs, rather than radical production. In summary, the present study suggests that chrysarobin produces oxidative stress in mouse epidermis as indicated by the generation of lipid peroxides. Antioxidants inhibited production of lipid peroxides and tumor promotion by chrysarobin. Collectively, these data suggest a role for free radicals or ROS in tumor promotion by chrysarobin.

Subject Area

Toxicology|Biochemistry|Cellular biology

Recommended Citation

Battalora, Michael St. John, "Mechanistic studies of mouse skin tumor promotion by chrysarobin" (1995). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9532529.