Design, synthesis and cellular and molecular pharmacology of 2'-bromo-4'-epidaunorubicin (WP401): A novel non-cross-resistant anthracycline antibiotic with the intrinsic ability to circumvent P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance
We designed and synthesized a novel daunorubicin (DNR) analogue that effectively circumvents P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug resistance. The fully protected carbohydrate intermediate 1,2-dibromoacosamine was prepared from acosamine and effectively coupled to daunomycinone in high yield. Deprotection under alkaline conditions yielded 2$\sp\prime$-bromo-4$\sp\prime$-epidaunorubicin (WP401). The in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular and molecular pharmacology of WP401 were compared with those of DNR in a panel of wild-type cell lines (KB-3-1, P388S, and HL60S) and their multidrug-resistant (MDR) counterparts (KB-V1, P388/DOX, and HL60/DOX). Fluorescent spectrophotometry, flow cytometry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to measure intracellular accumulation, retention, and subcellular distribution of these agents. All MDR cell lines exhibited reduced DNR uptake that was restored, upon incubation with either verapamil (VER) or cyclosporin A (CSA), to the level found in sensitive cell lines. In contrast, the uptake of WP401 was essentially the same in the absence or presence of VER or CSA in all tested cell lines. The in vitro cytotoxicity of WP401 was similar to that of DNR in the sensitive cell lines but significantly higher in resistant cell lines (resistance index (RI) of 2-6 for WP401 vs 75-85 for DNR). To ascertain whether drug-mediated cytotoxicity and retention were accompanied by DNA strand breaks, DNA single- and double-strand breaks were assessed by alkaline elution. High levels of such breaks were obtained using 0.1-2 $\mu$g/mL of WP401 in both sensitive and resistant cells. In contrast, DNR caused strand breaks only in sensitive cells and not much in resistant cells. We also compared drug-induced DNA fragmentation similar to that induced by DNR. However, in P-gp-positive cells, WP401 induced 2- to 5-fold more DNA fragmentation than DNR. This increased DNA strand breakage by WP401 was correlated with its increased uptake and cytotoxicity in these cell lines. Overall these results indicate that WP401 is more cytotoxic than DNR in MDR cells and that this phenomenon might be related to the reduced basicity of the amino group and increased lipophilicity of WP401.
Neamati, Nouri, "Design, synthesis and cellular and molecular pharmacology of 2'-bromo-4'-epidaunorubicin (WP401): A novel non-cross-resistant anthracycline antibiotic with the intrinsic ability to circumvent P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance" (1995). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9532532.