Insulin-associated changes in carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity are mediated through the insulin-like growth factor I pathway in the cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocyte

Edgar Kent Hudson, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston


The mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) system is composed of two proteins, CPT-I and CPT-II, involved in the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix to undergo $\beta$-oxidation. CPT-I is located outside the inner membrane and CPT-II is located on the inner aspect of the inner membrane. The CPT proteins are distinct with different molecular weights and activities. The malonyl-CoA sensitivity of CPT-I has been proposed as a regulatory step in $\beta$-oxidation. Using the neonatal rat cardiac myocyte, assays were designed to discriminate between these activities in situ using digitonin and Triton X-100. With this methodology, we are able to determine the involvement of the IGF-I pathway in the insulin-mediated increase in CPT activities. Concentrations of digitonin up to 25 $\mu$M fail to release citrate synthase from the mitochondrial matrix or alter the malonyl-CoA sensitivity of CPT-I. If the mitochondrial matrix was exposed, malonyl-CoA insensitive CPT-II would reduce malonyl-CoA sensitivity. In contrast to digitonin, Triton X-100 (0.15%) releases citrate synthase from the matrix and exposes CPT-II. CPT-II activity is confirmed by the absence of malonyl-CoA sensitivity. To examine the effects of various agents on the expression and/or activity of CPT, it is necessary to use serum-free medium to eliminate mitogenic effects of serum proteins. Comparison of different media to optimize CPT activity and cell viability resulted in the decision to use Dulbecco's Modified Eagle medium supplemented with transferrin. In three established models of cardiac hypertrophy using the neonatal rat cardiac myocyte there is a significant increase in CPT-I and CPT-II activity in the treated cells. Analogous to the situation seen in the hypertrophy model, insulin also significantly increases the activity of the mitochondrial proteins CPT-I, CPT-II and cytochrome oxidase with a coinciding increase the expression of CPT-II and cytochrome oxidase mRNA. The removal of serum increases the I$\sb{50}$ (concentration of inhibitor that halves enzyme activity) of CPT-I for malonyl-CoA by four-fold. Incubation with insulin returns I$\sb{50}$ values to serum levels. Incubation with insulin significantly increases malonyl-CoA and ATP levels in the cells with a resulting reduction in palmitate oxidation. Once malonyl-CoA inhibition of CPT-I is removed by permeabilizing the cells, insulin significantly increases the oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA in a manner which parallels the increase in CPT-I activity. Interestingly, CPT-II activity increases significantly only at the tissue culture concentration (1.7 $\mu$M) of insulin suggesting that the IGF-I pathway may be involved. Supporting a role for the IGF-I pathway in the insulin-induced increase in CPT activity is the significant increase in the synthesis of both cellular and mitochondrial proteins as well as increased synthesis of CPT-II. Consistent with an IGF-mediated pathway for the effect of insulin, IGF-I (10 ng/ml) significantly increases the activities of both CPT-I and -II. An IGF-I analogue which inhibits the autophosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor blunts the insulin-mediated increase in CPT-I and -II activity by greater than 70% and virtually eliminates the IGF-I response by greater than 90%. This is the first study to demonstrate the involvement of the IGF-I pathway in the regulation of mitochondrial protein expression, e.g. CPT.

Subject Area

Biochemistry|Cellular biology|Molecular biology|Anatomy & physiology|Animals

Recommended Citation

Hudson, Edgar Kent, "Insulin-associated changes in carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity are mediated through the insulin-like growth factor I pathway in the cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocyte" (1995). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9600558.