Molecular mechanisms of protein kinase-mediated desensitization and internalization of the beta-adrenergic receptor

Mike Nanyong Yuan, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston


The $\beta$-adrenergic receptor ($\beta$AR), which couples to G$\sb{\rm s}$ and activates adenylylcyclase, has been a prototype for studying the activation and desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors. The main objective of the present study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of protein kinase-mediated desensitization and internalization of the $\beta$AR. Activation of cAPK or PKC causes a rapid desensitization of $\beta$AR stimulation of adenylylcyclase in L cells, which previous studies suggest involves the cAPK/PKC consensus phosphorylation site in the third intracellular loop of the $\beta$AR, RRSSK$\sp{263}$. To determine the role of the individual serines in the cAPK- and PKC-meditated desensitizations, wild type (WT) and mutant $\beta$ARs containing the substitutions, Ser$\sp{261} \to$ A, Ser$\sp{262} \to$ A, Ser$\sp{262} \to$ D, and Ser$\sp{261/262} \to$ A, were constructed and stably transfected into L cells. The cAPK-mediated desensitization was decreased 70-80% by the Ser$\sp{262} \to$ A, Ser$\sp{262} \to$ D, and the Ser$\sp{261/262} \to$ A mutations, but was not altered by the Ser$\sp{261} \to$ A substitution, demonstrating that Ser$\sp{262}$ was the primary site of the cAPK-induced desensitization. The PMA/PKC-induced desensitization was unaffected by either of the single serine to alanine substitutions, but was reduced 80% by the double serine to alanine substitution, suggesting that either serine was sufficient to confer the PKC-mediated desensitization. Coincident stimulation of cAPK and PKC caused an additive desensitization which was significantly reduced (80%) only by the double substitution mutation. Quantitative evaluation of the coupling efficiencies and the GTP-shift of the WT and mutant receptors demonstrated that only one of the mutants, Ser$\sp{262} \to$ A, was partially uncoupled. The Ser$\sp{262} \to$ D mutation did not significantly uncouple, demonstrating that introducing a negative charge did not appear to mimic the desensitized state of the receptor. To accomplish the in vivo phosphorylation of the $\beta$AR, we used two epitope-modified $\beta$ARs, hemagglutinin-tagged $\beta$AR (HA-$\beta$AR) and 6 histidine-tagged $\beta$AR (6His-$\beta$AR), for a high efficiency purification of the $\beta$AR. Neither HA-$\beta$AR nor 6His-$\beta$AR altered activation and desensitization of the $\beta$AR significantly as compared to unmodified wild type $\beta$AR. 61% recovery of ICYP-labeled $\beta$AR was obtained with Ni-NTA column chromatography. The truncation 354 mutant $\beta$AR(T354), lacking putative $\beta$ARK site(s), displayed a normal epinephrine stimulation of adenylylcyclase. Although 1.0 $\mu$M epinephrine induced 60% less desensitization in T354 as compared to wild type $\beta$AR, 1.0 $\mu$M epinephrine-mediated desensitization in T354 was 35% greater than PGE$\sb1$-mediated desensitization, which is essentially identical in both WT and T354. These results suggested that sequences downstream of residue 354 may play a role in homologous desensitization and that internalization may be attributed to the additional desensitization besides the cAMP mechanism in T354 $\beta$AR. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Subject Area

Pharmacology|Cellular biology|Molecular biology

Recommended Citation

Yuan, Mike Nanyong, "Molecular mechanisms of protein kinase-mediated desensitization and internalization of the beta-adrenergic receptor" (1995). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9600566.