Integrin function in T cell activation recapitulated in tumor growth
An in vitro model using highly purified freshly isolated T cells demonstrated that immobilized ligands for the integrin $\alpha4\beta1$ could cooperate to enhance mitogen signals delivered by coimmobilized anti-CD3 specfic monoclonal antibody OKT3. Costimulation through $\alpha4\beta1$ integrin lead to enhanced proliferation which depended on expression of both IL-2 as well as IL-2 receptor. The transcription factors NF-AT, AP-1, and NF-$\kappa$B, which are involved in the regulation of IL-2 as well as other cytokine genes, were weakly induced by anti-CD3 stimulation alone in electromobility shift assays, but were augmented significantly with $\alpha4\beta1$ costimulation. These results suggested that $\alpha4\beta1$ ligands delivered a growth promoting signal which could synergize with signals induced by engagement of the TCR/CD3 complex, and also suggested a dual function for integrins in both localization and subsequent delivery of a growth promoting signal for T lymphocytes. Integrin involvement in lymphocyte trafficking has been employed as a model for understanding tumor cell metastasis. Therefore we have extended the duality of integrin function in both homing and subsequent delivery of a growth promoting signal to include a role for integrins in providing growth stimulation for tumor cells. Using a gastric derived tumor line, inhibition of adhesion to substrate leads to G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, reduced cyclin A expression, and reduced phospholipid synthesis. This effect could be reversed upon $\alpha2\beta1$ integrin mediated reattachment to collagen. These observations demonstrated a role for an integrin in the growth regulation of a tumor line. The small GTP-binding protein Rho, implicated in phospholipid synthesis, can be inactivated by the ADP-ribosylation exoenzyme C3 from C. botulinum. Addition of C3 to cell cultures inhibited the growth promoting effect due to integrin mediated adhesion. Taken together, these results are consistent with a model for cooperative interaction between integrins and Rho leading to enhanced phospholipid synthesis and mitogen signaling. This model may provide a basis for understanding the phenomena of integrin costimulation in T cell activation.
Udagawa, Taturo, "Integrin function in T cell activation recapitulated in tumor growth" (1995). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9601207.