# Specificity of somatostatin receptor and G-protein interactions as characterized by somatostatin receptor subtype specific antibodies

#### Abstract

The neuropeptide somatostatin is a widely distributed general inhibitor of endocrine, exocrine, gastrointestinal and neural functions. The biological actions of somatostatin are initiated by interaction with high affinity, plasma membrane somatostatin receptors (sst receptors). Five sst receptor subtypes have been cloned and sequence analysis shows they are all members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. The G proteins play a pivotal role in sst receptor signal transduction and the specificity of somatostatin receptor-G protein coupling defines the possible range of cellular responses. However, the data for endogenous sst receptor and G protein coupling is very limited, and even when it is available, the sst receptor subtypes involved in G protein coupling and signal transduction are unknown due to the expression of multiple sst receptor subtypes in target cell lines or tissues of somatostatin. In an effort to characterize each individual sst receptor subtypes, antisera against unique C-terminal regions of different sst receptor subtypes have been developed in our lab. In this report, antisera made against the sst1, sst2A and sst4 receptors are characterized. They are highly specific to their corresponding receptors and efficiently immunoprecipitate the sst receptors. Using these antibodies, the cell lines expressing these sst receptor subtypes were identified with both immunoprecipitation and Western blot methods. The development of sst receptor subtype specific antibodies make it possible to determine the specificity of the sst receptor subtype and G protein coupling in target cells or tissues expressing multiple sst receptors, two questions were addressed by this thesis: (1) whether different cellular environments affect receptor subtype and G protein coupling; (2) whether different sst receptors couple to different G proteins in similar cellular environments. Taken together our findings, both sst1 and sst2A receptors couple with G$\alpha\sb{\rm i1},$ G$\alpha\sb{\rm i2}$ and G$\alpha\sb{\rm i3}$ in CHO cells, G$\alpha\sb{\rm i2}$ and G$\alpha\sb{\rm i3}$ in GH$\sb4$C$\sb1$ cells. Further, sst2A receptors couple with G$\alpha\sb{\rm i1},$ G$\alpha\sb{\rm i2}$ and G$\alpha\sb{\rm i3}$ in AR4-2J cells while sst4 receptors couple with G$\alpha\sb{\rm i2}$ and G$\alpha\sb{\rm i3}$ in CHO cells. Therefore, the G protein coupling of the same sst receptors in different cell lines is basically similar in that they all couple with multiple $\alpha$-subunits of the G$\rm \sb{i}$ proteins, suggesting cellular environment has little effect on receptor and G protein coupling. Moreover, different sst receptors have similar G protein coupling specificities in the same cell line, suggesting components other than receptor and G$\alpha$ subunits in the signal transduction pathways may contribute to specific functions of each sst receptor subtype. This series of experiments represent a novel approach in dissecting signal transduction pathways and may have general application in the field. Furthermore, this is the first systematic study of sst receptor subtype and G protein $\alpha$-subunit interaction in both transfected cells and in normal cell lines. The information generated will be very useful in our understanding of sst receptor signal transduction pathways and in directing future sst receptor research.

#### Subject Area

Molecular biology|Neurology

#### Recommended Citation

Gu, Yi-Zhong, "Specificity of somatostatin receptor and G-protein interactions as characterized by somatostatin receptor subtype specific antibodies" (1996). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9626091.
https://digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu/dissertations/AAI9626091

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