Biochemical characterization of PICK1, a PKC binding protein
Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine kinases that are activated by a wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors. A single cell type contains multiple isoforms that are translocated to distinct and different subcellular sites upon mitogenic stimulus. Many different cellular responses are attributed to PKC activity though relatively few substrates or binding proteins have been definitively characterized. We used the hinge and catalytic domain of PKC$\alpha$ (PKC7) in a yeast two-hybrid screen to clone proteins that interact with C-kinase (PICKs). One protein which we have termed PICK1 may be involved in PKC$\alpha$-specific function at the level of the nuclear membrane after activation. Binding of PICK1 to PKC$\alpha$ has been shown to be isoform specific as it does not bind to PKC$\beta$II or PKC$\alpha$ in the yeast two-hybrid system. PICK1 mRNA expression level is highest in testis and brain with lower levels of expression in skeletal muscle, heart, kidney, lung and liver. PICK1 protein contains five PKC consensus phosphorylation sites and serves as an in vitro substrate for PKC. The PICK1 protein also contains a P-Loop motif that has been shown to bind ATP or GTP in the Ras family of oncoproteins as well as the G-Protein family. Proteins which bind ATP or GTP using this motif all have some sort of catalytic function although none has been identified for PICK1 as yet. PICK1 contains a DHR/GLGF motif at the N-terminus of the protein. The DHR/GLGF motif is contained in a number of recently described proteins and has been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions at the level of membranes and cytoskeleton. When both PKC$\alpha$ and PICK1 are co-expressed in Cos1 cells the two proteins co-localize to the perinucleus in immunoflouresence studies and co-immunoprecipitate. The binding site for PKC7 has been localized to amino acids 1-358 on PICK1 which contains the DHR/GLGF motif. Binding of PICK1 to PKC$\alpha$ requires the hinge and C-terminal domains of PKC$\alpha$. In vitro, PICK1 binds to PKC$\alpha$ and inhibits its activity as assayed by myelin basic protein phosphorylation. PICK1 also binds to TIS21, a primary response gene that is expressed in response to phorbol ester and growth factor treatment. The Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of PICK1 has been cloned and sequenced revealing a high degree of conservation in the DHR/GLGF motif. A more C-terminal region also shows a high degree of conservation, and the C. elegans PICK1 homologue binds to PKC7 suggesting a conservation of function. Taken together these results suggest that PICK1 may be involved in a PKC$\alpha$-specific function at the level of the nuclear membrane.
Staudinger, Jeffrey Leonard, "Biochemical characterization of PICK1, a PKC binding protein" (1996). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9626098.