Involvement of human chromosome 17 in the control of the metastatic phenotype in melanoma
Fusion of nonmetastatic murine melanoma K1735 C19H cells with metastatic human melanoma A375 C15N cells resulted in a hybrid (termed H7) which was highly metastatic in a nude mouse model. The H7 hybrid retained chromosome 17 as the sole intact human chromosome in the cell. A lung bioassay showed that the K1735 C19H cells were present in the lungs of nude mice with s.c. tumors, yet at 6-weeks after tumor resection, no cells remained in the lung and therefore did not form lung metastases. Examination of various phenotypic properties such as in vivo and in vitro growth demonstrated that phenotypically the H7 hybrid was most like the K1735 C19H cell line except for its metastatic ability. In contrast the H7 hybrid cells containing single or multiple copies of human chromosome 17 with a point mutation at codon 249 (arg-gly) of the p53 gene, readily formed lung metastases. A plasmid containing the human p53 from the H7 hybrid and four other contructs with mutations at codon 143 (val-arg), 175 (arg-his), 249 (arg-ser) and 273 (arg-his) were transfected into K1735 C19H cells. K1735 C19H cells expressing human p53 genes with mutations at codons 249, both the arg-ser mutation and the mutation from the H7 hybrid and 273 produced significantly more lung metastases. In vitro assays demonstrated that responses to various cytotoxic and DNA damaging agents varied with the presence of mutant p53 and with the type of agent used. When cultured in mouse lung-conditioned medium, the K1735 C19H cell line was growth-inhibited, while cells containing a mutant human p53 (either on the whole chromosome 17, as in the H7 hybrid cells or from a stably transfected construct) were growth stimulated. Western blot analysis of lung-conditioned media derived from either 6-month or 15-month old mice has detected high levels of soluble Fas ligand in the medium from older animals. Comparison of the levels of Fas receptor on the K1735 C19H cell line and the H7 hybrid were almost identical, but 50% of the K1735 C19H cells were killed in the presence of anti-Fas antibody as opposed to 7% of the H7 hybrid cells. The growth-inhibitory effects of the lung-conditioned medium on the K1735 C19H cells were abrogated by coculture with Fas-Fc, which competes with the Fas ligand for receptor binding. Growth-inhibition of the K1735 C19H was 54% when cultured in 60 $\mu$g/0.2 ml lung-conditioned medium and a control Fc, with only 9% inhibition in 60 $\mu$g/0.2 ml lung-conditioned medium and Fas-Fc. Growth of the H7 cells and K1735 C19H cells transfected with various mutant human p53 genes were unchanged by the presence of either the control Fc or the Fas-Fc. This indicates that the presence of human chromosome 17, and mutant p53 in part protects the cells from Fas:Fas ligand induced apoptosis, and allows the growth of lung metastases.
Cellular biology|Molecular biology
van Golen, Kenneth Louis, "Involvement of human chromosome 17 in the control of the metastatic phenotype in melanoma" (1996). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9626100.