Metabolism and actions of 2-chloro-2(prime)-fluoro-arabinosyladenine
2-Chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-$\beta $-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine(Cl-F-ara-A) is a new deoxyadenosine analogue which is resistant to phosphorolytic cleavage and deamination, and exhibits therapeutic activity for both leukemia and solid tumors in experimental systems. To characterize its mechanism of cytotoxicity, the present study investigated the cellular pharmacology and the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of action of Cl-F-ara-A, from entrance of the drug into the cell, chemical changes to active metabolites, targeting on different cellular enzymes, to final programmed cell death response to the drug treatment. Cl-F-ara-A exhibited potent inhibitory action on DNA synthesis in a concentration-dependent and irreversible manner. The mono-, di-, and triphosphates of Cl-F-ara-A accumulated in cells, and their elimination was non-linear with a prolonged terminal phase, which resulted in prolonged dNTP depression. Ribonucleotide reductase activity was inversely correlated with the cellular Cl-F-ara-ATP level, and the inhibition of the reductase was saturated at higher cellular Cl-F-ara-ATP concentrations. The sustained inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase and the consequent depletion of deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools result in a cellular Cl-F-ara-ATP to dATP ratio which favors analogue incorporation into DNA. Incubation of CCRF-CEM cells with Cl-F-ara-A resulted in the incorporation of Cl-F-ara-AMP into DNA. A much lesser amount was associated with RNA, suggesting that Cl-F-ara-A is a more DNA-directed compound. The site of Cl-F-ara-AMP in DNA was related to the ratio of the cellular concentrations of the analogue triphosphate and the natural substrate dATP. Clonogenicity assays showed a strong inverse correlation between cell survival and Cl-F-ara-AMP incorporation into DNA, suggesting that the incorporation of Cl-F-ara-A monophosphate into DNA is critical for the cytotoxicity of Cl-F-ara-A. Cl-F-ara-ATP competed with dATP for incorporation into the A-site of the extending DNA strand catalyzed by both DNA polymerase $\alpha$ and $\varepsilon$. The incorporation of Cl-F-ara-AMP into DNA resulted in termination of DNA strand elongation, with the most pronounced effect being observed at Cl-F-ara-ATP:dATP ratio $>$1. The presence of Cl-F-ara-AMP at the 3$\sp\prime$-terminus of DNA also resulted in an increased incidence of nucleotide misincorporation in the following nucleotide position. The DNA termination and the nucleotide misincorporation induced by the incorporation of Cl-F-ara-AMP into DNA may contribute to the cytotoxicity of Cl-F-ara-A.
Xie, Kevin Chunxi, "Metabolism and actions of 2-chloro-2(prime)-fluoro-arabinosyladenine" (1996). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9626101.