Left ventricular growth from age 8 to 18 and its anthropometric determinants: Longitudinal results from Project Heartbeat!
Left ventricular mass (LVM) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults. However, normal growth of LVM in healthy children is not well understood, and previous results on independent effects of body size and body fatness on LVM have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was (1) to establish the normal growth curve of LVM from age 8 to age 18, and evaluate the determinants of change in LVM with age, and (2) to assess the independent effects of body size and body fatness on LVM. In Project HeartBeat!, 678 healthy children aged 8, 11 and 14 years at baseline were enrolled and examined at 4-monthly intervals for up to 4 years. A synthetic cohort with continuous observations from age 8 to 18 years was constructed. A total of 4608 LVM measurements was made from M-mode echocardiography. The multilevel linear model was used for analysis. Sex-specific trajectories of normal growth of LVM from age 8 to 18 was displayed. On average, LVM was 15 g higher in males than females. Average LVM increased linearly in males from 78 g at age 8 to 145 g at age 18. For females, the trajectory was curvilinear, nearly constant after age 14. No significant racial differences were found. After adjustment for the effects of body size and body fatness, average LVM decreased slightly from age 8 to 18, and sex differences in changes of LVM remained constant. The impact of body size on LVM was examined by adding to a basic LVM-sex-age model one of 9 body size indicators. The impact of body fatness was tested by further introducing into each of the 9 LVM models (with one or another of the body size indicators) one of 4 body fatness indicators, yielding 36 models with different body size and body fatness combinations. The results indicated that effects of body size on LVM can be distinguished between fat-free body mass and fat body mass, both being independent, positive predictors. The former is the stronger determinant. When a non-fat-free body size indicator is used as predictor, the estimated residual effect of body fatness on LVM becomes negative.
Cellular biology|Public health
Dai, Shifan, "Left ventricular growth from age 8 to 18 and its anthropometric determinants: Longitudinal results from Project Heartbeat!" (1997). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9831527.