Modulating bioreductive drug activity with antivascular agents
Modulation of tumor hypoxia to increase bioreductive drug antitumor activity was investigated. The antivascular agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone acetic acid (DMXAA) was used in combination studies with the bioreductive drugs Tirapazamine (TPZ) and Mitomycin C (MMC). Blood perfusion studies with DMXAA showed a maximal reduction of 66% in tumor blood flow 4 hours post drug administration. This tumor specific decrease in perfusion was also found to be dose-dependent, with 25 and 30 mg/kg DMXAA yielding greater than 50% reduction in tumor blood flow. Increases in antitumor activity with combination therapy (bioreductive drugs $+$ DMXAA) were significant over individual therapies, suggesting an increased activity due to increased hypoxia induced by DMXAA. Combination studies yielded the following significant tumor growth delays over control: MMC (5mg/kg) $+$ DMXAA (25mg/kg) = 20 days, MMC (2.5mg/kg) $+$ DMXAA (25 mg/kg) = 8 days, TPZ (21.4mg/kg) $+$ DMXAA (17.5mg/kg) = 4 days. The mechanism of interaction of these drugs was investigated by measuring metabolite production and DNA damage. 'Real time' microdialysis studies indicated maximal metabolite production at 20-30 minutes post injection for individual and combination therapies. DNA double strand breaks induced by TPZ $\pm$ DMXAA (20 minutes post injection) were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Southern blot analyses and quantification showed TPZ induced DNA double strand breaks, but this effect was not evident in combination studies with DMXAA. Based on these data, combination studies of TPZ $+$ DMXAA showed increased antitumor activity over individual drug therapies. The mechanism of this increased activity, however, does not appear to be due to an increase in TPZ bioreduction at this time point.
Harrod, Virginia Lynn, "Modulating bioreductive drug activity with antivascular agents" (1998). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9909439.